Lucas Christopher Crane

Environmental engineering

Hometown: Flagstaff, Arizona, United States

Graduation date: Spring 2021

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FURI | Fall 2020

Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation Using Fresh Urine and Calcium-Rich Zeolites

Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a soil cementation technique that utilizes free urease enzyme to hydrolyze urea into carbonate ions; in the presence of calcium ions, calcium carbonate is precipitated. Fresh urine has been demonstrated to be a unique source of urea for EICP. However, a major concern is the ammonium ion byproduct. Zeolites were evaluated as an adsorbent of ammonium ions; varied doses and forms of zeolites were tested in beaker experiments using synthetic and real fresh urine. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of calcium-rich zeolites to adsorb ammonium and produce calcium carbonate for EICP.


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Additional projects from this student

Implementing zeolites and fresh urine into enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation to produce more sustainable cement and reuse nutrients.


  • FURI
  • Summer 2020