FURI Projects

A project for the FURI symposium

Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Machine Learning Model

The objective of this study is to use impedance data to develop a machine-learning model capable of accurately predicting the state of health of lithium-ion batteries. By analyzing the relationship between impedance characteristics and battery health, the model demonstrates a new, noninvasive approach to testing and extending battery life and enhancing reliability. The findings highlight…

Sensor Fusion System for Improving Motion Amount Quantification within Computer-Vision-Enabled Worker Analysis

In general, machine learning models are as accurate as the datasets that they are fed; in the context of computer vision, this accuracy is determined by sensor quality, input variability, and environmental stability. This project aims to reduce the impact of the aforementioned variables on computer vision models by developing a sensor fusion system to…

Towards Automated Selection of Embedding Models: Identifying the Optimal Parameters for the Baseline Model for TCR Embedding

Analyzing T cell receptor (TCR)-epitope interactions is crucial for identifying therapeutic targets for diseases. TCR clustering illuminates the landscape of clonal expansion, offering potential targets for intervention. Additionally, TCR-epitope binding affinity prediction is instrumental in screening cognate TCRs for combating harmful antigens. Recent advancements, particularly catELMo, have emphasized the significance of effective embeddings in enhancing…

Immersive Learning Architectures: Template-Driven VR Education

In the culmination of several semesters dedicated to enhancing educational experiences through virtual reality (VR), this research pivots towards establishing a foundation for sustainable and scalable VR applications. Building on a diverse portfolio of immersive tools — including a 3D graph visualizer, climate data globe, and interactive portal — this semester’s work is concentrated on…

Development of a Modular Actuator for Hip and Ankle Joint

In modern industry, worker well-being is a top priority. To address physical strain and reduce injury risks, there’s growing interest in using assistive devices. This study aims to develop a modular actuator for assisting ankle inversion-eversion motion and hip joint flexion. The device offers targeted support for the ankle, aiding in controlled inversion-eversion. With interchangeable…

Development of a Pendulum-Based Optical-Pickup Force Measurement Device for a Micronewton Thruster

This research project aims to create a novel device capable of thrust measurement on the micronewton scale which is small enough to operate in a vacuum chamber environment. The research team will accomplish this using a counterbalanced and magnetically damped target pendulum to capture the force of the thrust. The device will implement an Optical…

Leveraging the Power of Ligninolytic Enzymes to Valorize Lignin to Polyvinyl Phenol

Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable carbon-rich resource from plants and has attracted focus as an alternative source to fossil fuels. This study valorized p-coumaric acid, a major constituent component in lignin, using engineered bacterium to convert into the substituted phenol, 4-vinylphenol. Then, using ligninolytic enzymes, 4-vinylphenol was polymerized into polyvinyl phenol, a biopolymer. 13C pathway…

Non-Metallic Bio Polymer Composite Design and Selection for Replacement of Rigid Non-Degradable Orthopedic BioWare

The overall goal is to build upon the previous work using GRANTA software to obtain estimates of mechanical properties of polymer-ceramic composite materials. This work is being extended by using finite element models. The aim is to employ designated ASTM standards to experimentally validate polymer-ceramic composite properties. Creation of bio composite design of bone fixation…

Developing an Antibody Language Model for Generating Missing Amino Acid Residues to Complete Partial BCR Sequences

This research introduces a novel antibody language model for completing partial B cell receptor (BCR) sequences, addressing challenges in immune repertoire reconstruction from RNA-seq data. Leveraging AlphaFold’s EvoFormer embedding and attention mechanisms, the model learns contextual patterns within and across related BCR sequences. Trained on diverse antibody data, it aims to predict missing residues in…

Geometric Deep Learning and Anatomical Landmarking for Improved Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis

This study develops a preclinical Alzheimer’s disease screening method by applying geometric deep learning on hippocampal structures. Researchers will first extract the hippocampal structures from the MRI images and build volumetric meshes with existing tools. In the model, traditional graph convolution is enhanced by customized volumetric Laplace Beltrami Operators (LBOs). Moreover, the team will extract…

Solvent Vapor Anneal of Perovskite Films Fabricated by Electrical Field Direct Ink Deposition Technique

The overall objective is to fabricate the entire perovskite solar cell device using a deposition technique that uses an electrical field to spray coat thin films onto substrates. This experiment will include a solvent vapor anneal to improve the surface qualities of spray-coated MAPbI3 films. Currently, the films are uneven and rough as a result…

Next-Gen Immunotherapies: Harnessing Evolutionary Diffusion Models for Enhanced TCR-Epitope Sequence Generation

This project investigates the application of diffusion models in generating T-cell receptor (TCR)-Epitope sequences to enhance immunotherapy strategies against cancer and infectious diseases. By leveraging evolutionary data and advanced computational techniques, this approach aims to design TCR sequences with high affinity for specific epitopes, offering a potential breakthrough in personalized medicine. The findings could revolutionize…

MORE student researcher Rohit Menon is using the 5G communication network to create a system that can control an off-road vehicle remotely with high precision.

Remote Control of an Off-Road Automated vehicle over a 5G Network for Agriculture Applications

This project harnesses the power of 5G technology to control an off-road Jeep Grand Cherokee remotely, offering the precision and robustness of being directly behind the wheel, even from miles away. By integrating the vehicle’s systems with cutting-edge hardware and software, including a camera and a joystick, the researcher achieves unparalleled safety and efficiency in…

Structural Characterization of Aged Perovskite Films

The objective of the research is to structurally characterize thin films of perovskite solar cells (PSC) by measuring the orientation of atoms after different stages of aging. By using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), PSC films — that have undergone aging through placement of differing temperatures — are measured to investigate the changes in crystalline structure…

Enhancing Human Activity Recognition through 3D Modeling and Deep Learning: Advancement of Wearable Robotics through Time-series and Video Data Analysis

This study explores the potential of enhancing wearable robotics by analyzing walking activity data from a number of subjects. The research team employs sophisticated algorithms to recognize distinct human activities, aiming to bridge the gap between human motion and robotic assistance. By decoding patterns within walking data, the project seeks to contribute significantly to the…

FURI student researcher Jenna Jae Eun Lee is creating a motion-detection camera system that could help stop swerving drivers.

SwerveStopper: Kinematic Anomaly Detection Street Camera

The SwerveStopper camera is a motion-detecting camera that is designed to capture swerving vehicles. Drunk and distracted driving kills thousands every year and the issue continues to persist. The SwerveStopper would prevent reckless driving because if people know that there are swerve-detection cameras hidden around the city then individuals might think twice about getting behind…

Closed-Loop Control for Variable Inductor System at High Frequencies

Developing a closed-loop feedback system to regulate inductance is magnetic materials is important due to the challenges that are posed by parasitic effects in the design of variable passive devices. Manipulating magnetic materials to reach saturation allows for modulation of permeability, which gives dynamic control of inductance with AC inputs. However, measuring the AC input…

Characterizing the binding efficiency of NR5A1’s G35E ZF mutation in a synthetic system

The objective of this research is to determine the binding efficiency of Steroidogenic Factor 1’s (SF-1) zinc finger domains (ZFs) by comparing mutations implicated in Adrenal Disease with the wildtype zinc finger domains. Here a synthetic SF-1 response element will be developed by engineering SF-1 binding sequences in front of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)…

Covalent Organic Framework-Based Aerogel Composites for Passive Atmospheric Water Harvesting

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are crystalline, nanoporous polymers with ultra-high surface areas (>1600 m2/g) capable of absorbing small molecules from the environment. Monolithic gels produced with existing methods suffer from poor mechanical properties and complex rejuvenation methods following saturation. Herein, nanofillers have been added to a COF aerogel to improve the properties of the material….

Determining Transcription Factor LuxR Function In Mammalian Cells

Research in this study investigates the transcriptional factors, or gene activators and repressors, which are commonly used in bacteria, and whether or not they can be used in mammalian cells. If successful, this research would allow other researchers to easily take genetic circuits made and tested in bacteria for use in mammalian cells. This is…

Gas Permeation and Separation Studies of COF Based MMMs

Plans to synthesize mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with PDMS, polymeric matrixes, and microporous ACOF-1 and TpHz covalent organic frameworks (COF) powder. These membranes will be tested for the separation of gases and potential xylene isomers separation. Investigating different filler loadings (0%, 5%, and 10%) with ACOF-1 and TpHz individually. Testing their separation performance using a gas…

Finite-element Thermomechanical Characterization of Thin Film Perovskites for Solar Energy Applications

The objective of this project is to determine whether a finite-element model can predict the threshold temperatures at which mechanical failure will occur in perovskite-silicon tandem modules. No such computational thermomechanical analysis has been performed on perovskite-silicon tandem modules. Previous literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of finite element methods in predicting cracking of perovskites under…

Canonicalizing Amoebot Leader Election Algorithms

Leader election is a fundamental problem in distributing computing theory, in which systems must determine a unique leader processor. An area where leader election plays an important role is programmable matter — substances that can change their properties based on inputs. The model being looked at, the Amoebot model, has many leader election algorithms proposed,…

Understanding Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases using a Contrastive Learning Approach on MRSI Data

The research team proposes a novel approach to understand neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases using high-resolution MRSI data and machine learning techniques. Leveraging Contrastive Principal Component Analysis (CPCA), they aim to derive latent representations of basal and lesioned MRSI in mice. By adapting methods from human data analysis, they seek to explore neuroimmune states and pathology….

Accelerating the Engineering of Cyanobacteria via recJ Knockout for D-lactate Production

The newly discovered strain of cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp. PCC 11901, is a promising candidate in biotechnology due to its natural transformability, short doubling time, and tolerance to high temperatures and salinities. This research analyzes the effects of recJ gene knockouts on the time required to engineer cyanobacteria by using D-lactate production as a case study….

Development of Biomimetic Nanoparticles for Smooth Muscle Dysfunction

Atherosclerosis remains a global factor in mortality and morbidity. As the disease progresses, plaque builds up within the arterial wall narrowing the lumen. Interventions such as angioplasty and stenting cause vascular injury which induces pathological phenotypes in smooth muscle cells (SMC), leading to neointima hyperplasia. This project addresses the challenge by developing a biomimetic nanodrug…

GCSP research stipend student Ritwik Sharma is creating a wayfinder for a telescope used for K-12 outreach to help students explore astronomy.

Design and Construction of a Wayfinding Method for the Completely Hackable Amateur Radio Telescope

The Completely Hackable Amateur Radio Telescope (CHART) is an outreach tool designed by the Low-Frequency Cosmology Lab to teach K-12 students about radio astronomy and its performance. Currently, the CHART cannot identify the direction it points in, making it harder for students to use. The CHART wayfinder is designed to solve this problem by telling…

Understanding the Influence of Vibrational Forces on Soil Chemistry and Microbial Dynamics

This research investigates the effect of mechanical vibrations on interactions between soil particles, with a specific focus on alterations in pore fluid chemistry and the microbial ecosystem within the soil. The premise is that external vibrational forces could modify the behavior of granular soils, leading to changes in pore fluid pH, electrical conductivity, and microbial…

Finite Element Modeling to Optimize Degradation Properties on Polymeric Materials

The ease at which items can be manufactured with 3D printers has the potential to reduce large amounts of single-use waste when constructed correctly. By fabricating lattice structures instead of a solid mass of material reduces material use. Unfortunately, the reduction in material mass can cause a loss in strain tolerance in the material. Therefore,…

Characterization of Silk Fibroin Electrospun NanoScaffolding

Electrospinning is used to create the backbone that cells attach themselves to, allowing humans to grow 3D tissue and artificial organs. This research project looks at how different variables such as ambient temperature, humidity, polymer concentration, applied voltage, and flow rate affect silk fibroin electrospun nanoscaffold features, such as fiber diameter, length, porosity, permeability, as…

High Throughput Computational Search For Efficient Thermochemical Energy MOx Materials For Hydrogen Production

The DOE’s Hydrogen Shot goal aims to reduce the cost of green hydrogen production to $1/kilogram by 2031. The solar thermochemical hydrogen water splitting (STCH) process is a promising approach because of its high theoretical efficiencies. STCH relies on metal oxide reduction with concentrated solar energy to store chemical energy in material bonds. The energy…

Developing a Theoretical Understanding of Water-Network Formation On The Surface of Metal Oxides

Prior work shows that the arrangement of water at a metal-oxide surface dominates the catalytic and adsorption properties of the material, but the determination of this water structure is difficult. This project will utilize newly developed methodologies that combine Density Functional Theory (DFT) and machine learning to accelerate this determination on example metal-oxides  alpha-Al2O3 and…

Hardware-Net

Machine learning or gradient-based optimization with hardware in the loop typically requires differentiation through the hardware layer. For example, in the optimal control of a hardware system, finding an optimal system trajectory requires differentiation through unknown dynamics of the hardware, which is a challenge. In this project, differentiation through the hardware layer is possible using…

Optimizing Cell Culture Methods for Acetylcholinesterase Production

The Clark Lab currently produces Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for use in pH-responsive nanosensors in-house, by collecting waste media from transfected HEK293T cells in a medium with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). Previous research has shown HEK293T cells to be less efficient in recombinant protein production than other lines such as CHO-K1 cells, and media containing FBS…

Nanomechanical Characterization and Evaluation of Silk Fibroin Electrospun Scaffolds for Regenerative-Engineered Orthopedic Products

This research addresses the field of biomanufacturing 3D living tissues for regenerative medicine by focusing on nanomechanical tests on individual silk fibroin fibers derived from electrospun scaffolds. Utilizing Atomic Force Microscopy, the study aims to accurately quantify load-strain behavior in these nanofibers, providing insights into their mechanical interactions with anchorage-dependent cells. The ultimate goal is…

Robot Learning with Adverbial Corrections

Robots programmed to follow human commands have struggled to accurately interpret human intentions down to the movement level. This research proposes a framework for robot learning using natural language adverbial corrections, aiming to bridge the gap between human intent and robotic execution. By integrating natural language instructions, such as “throw faster,” with demonstrations, robots can…

NRG1 Delivery via Sulfated-Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Microgels as a Neuroprotective Agent to Oxygen-Glucose Deprived (OGD) Neuronal Cells

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that has been shown to promote the survival and function of neurons after brain injury. This study aims to test whether sulfated-HA as a hydrogel material may serve as a delivery vehicle for NRG1 to…

Verification Code Generation in the Hardware Description Language Verilog

The hardware industry employs Verilog and other hardware description languages to design and test a variety of application-specific integrated circuits. The process of verifying a circuit design is non-trivial and requires many resources to ensure functionality. This study attempts to create a machine learning model that generates verification code given a circuit design and its…

Microfiltration Polysulfone Membranes for Polar Product Recovery

The research to be conducted aims to understand how to make polysulfone (PSU) microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes and test for polyol retention, specifically polyethylene glycol (PEG). The separation method being tested will be dead-end cell filtration. Dead-end filtration works by arranging the flow direction of the feed solution to be perpendicular to the membrane. This…

Engineering a Microbial Chimera for Biosynthesis of Green Solvents

Chimeras are engineered organisms that can be used to produce valuable chemicals. Through genetic engineering, gene insertion and deletion, scientists are able to direct metabolic flux towards a chemical of interest. If engineered correctly, a microbial chimera can be used to synthesize biodegradable, recyclable, petrochemical-free solvents. This would alleviate the strain put on our environment…

Optimizing Disaggregated Memory for Large Machine Learning Applications

Large machine learning (ML) models have intensive memory demands for model training and serving, while memory resources in data centers are often underutilized. Memory disaggregation decouples memory resources from servers into a shared memory pool, and has the potential to expand memory capacity and reduce memory wastage. This project develops a memory disaggregation based caching…

Simultaneous Production of D-Lactic Acid and Ethylene by Engineered Cyanobacteria

With the depletion of fossil fuel sources and increasing demand for energy production, alternative sources for energy and raw material production are needed. An alternative strategy is to use cyanobacteria as a microbial cell factory for renewable resource production as they can capture CO2 and convert it to useful material. A model of cyanobacteria strain,…

Mesh Based Machine Learning Algorithms for Use in Deforming Solids Simulations

The goal of this research is to determine the effectiveness of graph neural networks in predicting the deformation and motion of solids. For this research specifically a two-dimensional beam was used, however, the long-term goal is to apply these methods to three-dimensional soft robot models. The graphical neural network model used functions on a system…

Utilizing Substrate Specific Polyol Phosphatases for Enhanced Photosynthetic Sorbitol Production in Cyanobacteria

Sustainable and environmentally friendly sorbitol production has become an important challenge in this day and age. Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries and has been recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy as a target chemical for sustainable production. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, a photoautotrophic microorganism, has been…

Measuring Material Diffusion And Performance Changes in Semiconductor Diodes

The purpose of this research is to find a correlation between aging semiconductor diodes, the before and after performance, and the metal distribution through the diode. Aging of diode samples will be produced by heating the diodes in various temperatures. Performance will be taken into account by taking capacitance-voltage measurements. Metal diffusion will be measured…

Photoelectrocatalytic Nitrate Reduction Using Nano-enabled Titanium Oxide Decorated with Metal Nanoparticles

Nitrate (NO3–) pollution in surface and groundwater, worsened by nitrogen-rich fertilizers in agriculture, poses a significant challenge. Conventional methods remove NO3– physically, yielding concentrated reject water needing further treatment. Electrochemical processes use electrons to convert NO3– into ammonia (NH3) or dinitrogen (N2). This project explores photoelectrocatalysis, enhancing selectivity for NH3 as an added-value product using…

Investigating the Influence of Bamboo Fiber Microstructure on Mechanical Response

This study examines how various conditions of microfibers affect mechanical response using finite element analysis. Understanding stresses and where they propagate under loadings is essential for use in a structural application. Additionally, understanding how moisture content affects the material will be a crucial takeaway. For future works, it will be beneficial to validate findings in…

Additive Manufacturing of Polymer-based Lithium Salt Electrolyte with Enhanced Physical Properties Towards High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

Over the past decade, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become an attractive power source due to their high energy density and recharging capabilities. However, challenges associated with poor cyclability, and weak mechanical properties of the electrolyte hinder their practical use with promising anode materials like silicon. Additive manufacturing, particularly mask image-based vat photopolymerization, offers high resolution…

Performance Evaluation of TPUs and FPGAs for Deep Neural Network Inference

The high computational complexity of AI algorithms and the stringent cost-energy-latency necessitate the use of efficient domain-specific hardware. With several design choices available from reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to highly specialized Application Specific Integrated Circuits for example Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), it is important to make a meaningful hardware platform choice. This research…

The Utility and Impact of Sericin as a Novel Biomaterial for Use in Wound Healing

In recent times, the ambiguity surrounding the biocompatibility of silk sericin (produced by Bombyx mori silkworms) has deemed the potential biomaterial as a by-product of the degumming process, despite possessing mechanical and tensile properties equivalent to silk fibroin. This research endeavor strives to determine an optimal degumming process for the extraction of silk sericin from…

Scalable Synthesis of Zeolite for Use as Separators in High Performance Lithium Ion and Metal Batteries

The goal of this project is to develop a commercially viable fire-safe lithium-ion battery by replacing the traditional polymer separator with a silica-based zeolite separator. This research aims to scale up the production of zeolites so that these fire-safe batteries can be produced on a larger scale. Several zeolites of different geometries will be synthesized…

Engineering C. glutamicum to Improve b-ketoadipate Pathway Productivity

With over 50 million tons of lignin generated as waste annually, lignin is seen as the most abundant renewable feedstock for aromatic molecules. Through chemical pretreatment, lignin is broken into two major aromatics, p-coumarate and trans-ferulate. Corynebacterium glutamicum is tolerant to these otherwise toxic aromatic molecules and is capable of metabolizing the aromatics. By utilizing the…

The Viability of Generative AI in Data Analytics and Summarization

This project seeks to address whether or not modern generative AI tools such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT are viable in analyzing datasets, particularly student surveys that have write-in answers, and giving an accurate readable synopsis of the survey data. Through this research, new potential use-cases for generative AI in the field of Data Analytics will be…

Machine Learning on Embedded Systems to Assess Correct Form During Weight Training

This study explores the application of machine learning in embedded systems to provide immediate feedback for weight training exercises. By employing Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), it aims to accurately classify different exercises and ensure the correct form and posture, thus enhancing athlete safety and promoting effective muscle development. The integration of advanced algorithms with detailed…

Development of a Novel Multimetal 3D Printer via Mask Image Projection Based Vat Photopolymerization

Mask image-based vat photopolymerization 3D printing, which selectively cures photoreactive resin, is an ideal technology for fabricating multimaterial objects by integrating a material exchange process during printing. Currently, two common metal additive manufacturing technologies, powder bed fusion (PBF) and material extrusion, are limited to a small range of printable materials and require specialized equipment that…

MORE student researcher Aishwarya Katkar studies how machine learning can help expedite material analysis to develop semiconductor device components.

Integrated Machine Learning Approaches for Advanced Analysis of Semiconductor Materials

The performance of most electronic materials is capped by their inherent properties. Analyzing these materials is a complex, time-consuming task. This research employs novel machine learning techniques to enhance efficiency, consistency, and quality control in line with industry advancements. By streamlining analysis and eliminating manual feature engineering, it offers an automated, efficient solution for material…

Investigating the Effects of Oxygen Availability on Neurodevelopment in Organoid Models

Cortical organoids are three-dimensional structures by which neural development could be studied in vitro. However, they are limited in their ability to recreate the complex physiology and circuitry of the human brain, limiting their accuracy as models for disease and injury. This may occur due to the culturing conditions of organoids not being replicative of…

FURI student researcher Patrick Shea Jr. is creating reconfigurable solar arrays helps both in shady conditions and as the solar cells age and degrade.

Maximize Solar Power Using Solar Cell Reconfiguration Circuits

Can solar power be more efficiently extracted from a reconfigurable array by minimizing the number of switches, and allowing for maximum configuration flexibility? This research motivation stems from spacecraft solar systems in which array performance can degrade from 20% to 50% over a 15-year mission. This research seeks to bypass damaged cells by reconfiguring the…

Estimating Joint Parameters and Manipulation Order of Multi-DoF Objects for Robot Manipulation

Manipulation has been a key research area in robotics, yet limitations persist in handling complex objects, especially with multiple degrees of freedom. This project presents a computational method to estimate the articulation parameters and joint manipulation order from 3D camera input for novel objects. Learning from human demonstrations, the model enables robotic manipulation of complex…

Vat Photopolymerization of Resin/Liquid Crystal Based Polarizers with Enhanced Anisotropic Property for Optical Steganography

This research project aims to explore the potential of vat photopolymerization in creating resin/liquid crystal-based polarizers with significantly improved anisotropic properties, focusing on their application in optical steganography. By investigating optimal parameters and material choices, it seeks to advance our understanding of this fabrication technique and its implications. The study also aims to demonstrate how…

Analyzing the Morphological Shifts of Breast Cancer Cells under Varying Stromal Conditions Using a Microfluidic Technology

Cancer progression does not solely depend on the cancer cell acting autonomously, but the surrounding environment plays a prominent role in cell behavior and disease progression. To achieve a deeper understanding of the impact that diverse stromal components have on the morphological changes of cancer cells, an engineered model of the tumor microenvironment will be…

Simulation of MoNbTaW Refractory High Entropy Alloy (RHEA) Optimization for High Temperature and Strength Applications

Aircraft engine efficiency depends on the operating temperature, where current nickel-superalloys are limiting that temperature to 800°C to preserve mechanical strength. The refractory high entropy alloy (RHEA) MoNbTaW has the desired mechanical properties of the current conventional alloys but maintain those properties at much high temperatures, exceeding 1200°C. This project’s purpose is to find compositions…

Computer-Vision-Enabled Video Analysis for Motion Amount Quantification

This work presents a novel approach to address the challenge of motion amount quantification for in-situ videos, focusing on the local and collective motion of body joints. Research approach considers a region-specific motion for particular body parts (e.g. only one hand). Given the task of motion amount quantification for videos, the project will consider relevant…

Regulating Surface Synergistic Layers of Layered Cathodes Through Low-Temperature Pyrolysis

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are crucial in the advancement of electronic devices, being used in portable electronics, electric vehicles, energy storage, etc. Most commercial uses of LIBs, such as electric vehicles, utilize LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) where x ≤ 0.6 due to adequate research that proves consistent and safe use. It is proven that increasing the nickel content,…

Media Optimization to Improve Photosynthetic Sorbitol Production

Project involves investigating the impact of implementing MAD2Media’s advanced optimization techniques on sorbitol production yields, focusing on enhancing sorbitol purity. Optimized media growth conditions and fermentation parameters are essential for maximizing sorbitol production yields and achieving high-quality sorbitol products. The advancements contribute to sustainability efforts by reducing environmental impact through more efficient and environmentally friendly…

Data Set Design, Generation, and Analysis for Deep MIMO and DeepSense 6G with Machine Learning

Due to recently granted access to broader airwave bands, there has been significant motivation to research more complex digital encoding and novel capabilities for our future 6G wireless communication environment. The transition from 5G to 6G using AI/ML is critical as our future wireless systems will boost the development of emerging technologies like smart cities,…

Exploring Single-Atom Catalysts for the Electrochemical Conversion of Nitrate to Ammonia with DFT and Machine Learning

Anthropogenic activities, particularly within the agricultural sector, contribute significantly to the climate crisis and aquatic ecosystem strain. Fertilizers produced through the Haber-Bosch process emit undesirable greenhouse gasses and disrupt the nitrogen cycle, resulting in dead zones and eutrophication. To address this, this research focuses on studying the behavior of single-atom catalysts for nitrate reduction using…

Hafnium Contacts for n-type Conducting Nanocrystalline Diamond

Tri-layer metal contacts consisting of hafnium, platinum, and gold were deposited on n-type conducting nanocrystalline diamond by electron beam evaporation and patterned by a bi-layer lift-off process. Samples were then annealed at 800℃ to promote the formation of hafnium carbide at the interface in order to improve adhesion and lower contact resistance. Circular transfer length…

Enhancing Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Analysis for Neurodegenerative Disease Research

This research aims to advance single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) analysis to deepen understanding of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and ALS. By developing novel algorithms and analytical pipelines, the project focuses on identifying disease-specific biomarkers and elucidating biological pathways. Enhanced scRNA-Seq techniques promise to refine diagnostics and treatment, contributing significantly to neurodegenerative disease research by…

Integrating Machine Learning With a Cancer-On-A-Chip Model to Characterize the Morphological Response of SUM159 Cells to Infiltrative Stromal Cells

Cellular morphology is an emerging indicator of cellular state especially related to cancerous processes like metastasis and stroma invasion. Cancerous cells have been observed to undergo a pseudo epithelial mesenchymal transition in order to assume a more invasive phenotype with a stereotypically sharp morphology. Herein, it is hypothesized that machine learning can be used to…

Swelling Studies of PEG/PPG-Polyurethane Polymers for Medical Applications

This study seeks to better understand how polymers comprised of different ratios of polypropylene glycol (PPG) and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) will affect the polymers swelling and properties for biomedical applications. Using polymers in biomedical devices could provide a more compact and efficient drug delivery system that can both be biodegradable or long lasting depending on…

FURI student researcher Henry Nakaana is exploring the use of fungi in wildfire-affected soils for sustainable and cost-effective soil erosion mitigation.

Bio Stimulation of Fungi-Mycelium Create a Natural Geotextile Capable of Mitigating Post-Wildfire Soil Erosion

Climate change has increased the prevalence and severity of wildfires and heavy rains, severely impacting ecosystems and soil. These events strip away vegetation, leaving soil exposed and prone to erosion. To address this, this research project explores the engineered growth of fungi in burnt soils as a novel, cost-effective erosion control method. Fungi mycelium, with…

Identifying Defects in Perovskite Using Machine Vision

Next-generation technologies such as perovskite solar cells have proven to be the lowest cost of any solar technology if they can be successfully manufactured. However, defects in perovskite can reduce efficiency and manufacturability. This study uses machine vision and traditional methods to discover such defects, which aids in understanding their nature and consequences along with…

Developing Self-Healing Polymeric Nanocomposites through Nanoparticle-based Bonds

The aim of this research is to synthesize self-healing polymer nanocomposites with enhanced glass transition temperature and stiffness using polyvalent interactions from surface-functionalized nanoparticles. Traditional self-healing materials often exhibit low stiffness and glass transition temperature, limiting their applications. By strengthening these properties through polyvalent interactions, the utility of self-healing materials can be expanded to a…

Computational Design of Disordered Optical Metamaterials Beyond the Quasistatic Regime

A metamaterial is composed of two types of materials in a thin layered array, metals and dielectrics. Metamaterials interact with electromagnetic waves differently than conventional materials due to their anisotropic dispersion relation. The layered material can change dispersion relation depending on the layering of the system. With the data collected on the dielectric constant of…

Asynchronous Concurrency in Anonymous Dynamic Networks

This research project aims to devise novel methods for simulating synchronous executions within asynchronous environments, employing a synchronizer between the underlying network and the processes. While previous studies exist, this approach targets dynamic networks with nodes that are devoid of unique identifiers (anonymous), have sub-logarithmic memory (incapable of computing identifiers), and rely on message-passing between…

2-Dimensional Perovskite Photovoltaics Produced with Organic Additives

Perovskites are a type of crystalline material that offer great benefits when it comes to sustainable solar power. They are comparably efficient and significantly lower cost than silicon, which is what is overwhelmingly used for solar panels nowadays. While perovskites are very much compelling because of what they offer, they have their downsides such as…

Vehicle Tracking Pipeline for an Intelligent Parking System

The escalating urban population has intensified parking challenges, necessitating innovative solutions. Ongoing industrial research strives to devise an intelligent parking system, efficiently guiding human drivers and Automated Vehicles (AVs) to available parking spaces. Notably, current research overlooks the critical issue of traffic congestion, a significant contributor to time inefficiencies, fuel wastage, increased greenhouse gas emissions,…

Understanding Effect of Ion Migration Through Correlating Chemical and Ionic Properties in Halide Perovskites

Perovskite Solar Cells (PSC) are a very promising area of study because of their superior optoelectronic properties, affordability and reduced carbon footprint of manufacturing compared to other solar cells. The drawback of PSCs is the fast degradation process under heat, light and/or moisture. Ion movement is one of the main causes of the degradation process….

Producing Printable LiPON Based Solid-State Electrolyte Thin Film Using Open-Air Processing

Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is recognized as a solid-state electrolyte with significant advantages over traditional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. This study focuses on analyzing various LiPON formulations and their ionic conductivity in comparison to other established solid electrolytes. Such conductivity is essential for determining the efficiency of solid-state electrolytes (SSEs). Factors influencing these outcomes…

Thermal Management for 3D Heterogenous Integration of Semiconductor Packaging

The growing demand for advanced computing is undeniable, leading to increased power requirements for computer chips. Consequently, the generated heat from these components is also on the rise. This study focuses on developing an innovative intralayer cooling system for future 3D integrated semiconductor packages. Specifically, a liquid-cooled micro-pin fin heat sink is designed and analyzed…

Advancing Drug Delivery Systems: Building a Model for Thin Film Double-Layer Polyurethanes

Thin-film drug delivery systems have emerged as efficient means to administer medication across biological settings, due to their ease, speed, and effectiveness. They have provided a convenient and non-invasive approach to drug administration across various applications, including oral films, skin patches, and ocular treatments. Furthermore, advancements in thin-film drug research have allowed researchers to deliver…

Perception of Intelligent Parking System

The transportation landscape in the United States heavily relies on private vehicles, with the majority of daily trips being undertaken in personal cars. Parking lots, essential components of urban infrastructure, witness a significant number of accidents and challenges, leading to loss of lives, injuries, and financial burdens. This paper synthesizes statistics from various sources, highlighting…

Processing and Laser Scribing Flexible Perovskite Solar Modules for Lunar Application

This research effort focuses on the creation of a low-cost, lightweight, flexible perovskite solar modules that can withstand harsh thermal cycling that mimic lunar environments. Further, testing focuses on the comparison between flexible and rigid perovskite solar modules and the scalability of these cells to provide application within a large scale module consisting of multiple…

Characterization of Battery Stability Through Impedance Characterization for Sodium Ion Batteries

The objective of this research is to study battery degradation on sodium ion batteries, a more sustainable alternative to lithium ion due to the large presence of the material. The research performed on the sodium ion batteries will be done through a characterization technique known as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). There are two types of…

Integrating Mutation Signaling Pathways into Comprehensive Somatic Mutation Profiles

Pathway research provides clear evidence to the importance of signaling pathways to construct networks that catch pathway alterations to find identifiable and treatment-targetable patterns in certain cancers. Using datasets from the PanCancer Atlas, this research integrates these essential pathways into the current OncoMerge program, which currently only integrates protein-affecting mutations (PAMs), copy number alterations (CNAs),…

Developing More Stable and Efficient FAPbI3-based Perovskites

There has been increased focus on using perovskites photovoltaics for their tunable properties and low-cost manufacturability. The research will investigate formamidiniun lead iodide (FAPbI3), whose band gap of 1.48 eV makes it an ideal material for single junction photovoltaics. However, FAPbI3 faces thermodynamic stability problems — the ideal cubic α-FAPbI3only forms at about 160°C, and…

Unified Frenet Frame Motion Planning Based Framework for Social Navigation

Understanding AV-human interaction is crucial yet challenging, often leading to accidents. Game theory optimizes this but is computationally inefficient. Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) improves efficiency but exhaustive exploration remains an issue. Pruning, as seen in AlphaGo, helps. The researchers’ proposed framework combines MCTS with predictive motion from frenet frame-based planning, focusing on specific vehicle…

Nano Contrast Agents in Photoacoustic Imaging: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Insights

This study investigates using indocyanine green (ICG) and locked nucleic acid-indocyanine green (LNA-ICG) as contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging. In vitro analysis involves imaging ICG and LNA ICG samples in sample tubes that are immersed in either water or embedded in agarose gel. Ex vivo analysis involves injection of LNA-ICG into a rat brain, then…

Processing and Characterizing Flexible Perovskite Solar Modules for Lunar Applications

This research investigates the feasibility of designing low-cost, lightweight, and flexible perovskite solar modules (PSMs) for lunar applications. With a focus on addressing challenges inhibiting the scalability of plastic substrate-based perovskite solar cells to PSMs, the study explores processing techniques, photoluminescence comparisons, and the effectiveness of flexible PSMs under simulated lunar conditions. Results aim to…

Advancing the Semiconductor Industry through the Development of a Miniaturized Reinforced Mixed-Mode Bending Apparatus (MRMMB) with Out-Of-Plane Shear Mode Consideration, Initially Invented at Arizona State University

Mixed modes I/II/III is an important topic in fracture mechanics. Presently, there are several approaches to characterize materials under pure modes I, II, and III. In contrast, a few apparatuses can characterize mixed modes I, II, and III simultaneously. Recently, the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) fixture was modified by ASU researchers to the Reinforced Mixed-Mode Bending…

Using Machine Learning on Naturalistic Driving Data to Predict Mild Cognitive Impairment

The objective of the study is to find out if a relationship exists between naturalistic driving patterns and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and how these findings can aid diagnosis and risk assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease. If successful, this project will identify biometric and driving signatures associated with MCI diagnosis. This is helpful for providing the…

FURI student researcher Clara Chaves Azevedo conducts research into perovskite solar cells tat can be used on windows.

Nontoxic Material Design Using Tin-based Perovskites for Sustainable Energy Production

The research endeavors to enhance the efficiency of perovskite films by utilizing tin (Sn) instead of toxic lead (Pb), aiming to reduce environmental impacts while developing transparent photovoltaic window absorber materials. This work uses fully inorganic precursor materials to create a more stable crystalline material, notably CsSnBr3 (cesium tin bromide). However, current tin-based inks cannot…

Unraveling Speech Processing in Humans: Insights from Neural Signals

Analyzing neural signals from the Wernicke’s area and the Face Motor Cortex of the human brain during speech to understand language processing. Using a dataset from an epilepsy patient, this research examines correlations between speech perception and production. The study aims to uncover common trends in speech processing, identify speakers, and explore the relationship between…

Optimization of Heat Transfer Through Cadmium Selenide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Structure Using Finite Element Modeling

Using Finite Element Method (FEM), the optimum heat transfer through Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles can be determined. This can be done through the use of computer software including MATLAB and Abaqus. Once the parameters for heat transfer are found, the structure properties of the CdSe can be tuned. The intent is to provide the ability…

Effects of Parkinson’s Disease and a Secondary Cognitive Task on Postural Sway and Reactive Balance

A prominent symptom of Parkinson’s disease is postural instability which makes it difficult for patients to keep steady when standing or regain their balance when disturbed. This effect on balance can be seen through the change in the center of pressure and gait pattern. This project focuses on the analysis of balance treatments for Parkinson’s…

The Incorporation of Electric Vehicle Chargers with Photovoltaic Systems through Load Management

Sustainable living is becoming more popular with innovations in solar, or photovoltaic (PV), energy and electric vehicles (EVs). However, EV chargers still often supply energy from nonrenewable sources. Therefore, this project seeks to complete the renewable energy cycle of EVs by using PVs to power chargers using load management. Load management (LM) cuts out traditional…

Power Disaggregation for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

In today’s era of increasing energy costs and environmental concerns, the efficient utilization of energy is critical. This study focuses on developing a robust algorithm, leveraging deep learning techniques, to accurately identify individual appliance consumption patterns. By breakdown of energy consumption, recommendations for both energy and cost savings can be made. The expected outcomes include…

Utilizing Magnetic Nanoparticles to Advance MRI-based Hyperthermia Abilities

This research leverages the emerging capabilities of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), exploring their potential to create a hybrid system intertwining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia. The incorporation of MNPs facilitates an advanced MRI system with an included RF hyperthermia component, enhancing imaging efficiency and allowing precise treatment through artificial hyperthermia for various bodily…

Understanding Chiral Material Systems by Synthesizing and Characterizing Vibrational Properties of Single-Crystal InSeI

InSeI forms naturally in a chiral structure, and along with the structure brings interesting properties, such as chiral spin selectivity, which may prove beneficial in semiconductor material selection. Growth using the Bridgman technique showed centimeter-sized crystals produced, along with high crystallinity. Furthermore, electron microscopy revealed structural characteristics and established a bandgap of 2.08eV in highly…

Patient-Adaptive Robotic Balance Training for Lower-Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation

Post-stroke balance deficits can significantly impede daily activities and increase the risk of falls, compromising both independence and recovery. This research investigates the effectiveness of patient-adaptive robotic balance training in improving postural and lower body stability for stroke survivors. By utilizing robotic platforms to induce perturbations and provide real-time feedback, this study challenges patients’ balance…

Developing an Assistive Education Tool for Data Visualization

This project addresses the lack of accessible data visualization education tools. We’re developing a user-friendly tool for beginners to enhance their data visualization skills. The research aims to create an easy-to-use platform, evaluated through user studies, to improve decision-making and analysis for individuals new to data visualization.

Autonomous Vehicle Simulation Scenarios

This project aims to develop AV simulation scenarios in the CARLA simulator with animal and pedestrian road actors. By creating scenarios with these road actors, the AV driving performance can be assessed in diverse scenarios that are likely to be encountered in real-world deployments. The driving assessment (DA) metrics are used to quantify the performance…

Revolutionizing UAV Technology: Innovative Low-Cost Design for Enhanced Data Collection and Surveillance

This research project ventures into the realm of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology with the objective of crafting a groundbreaking UAV design. This design aims to redefine conventional standards by offering a lightweight, cost-effective, and adaptable solution for data collection and surveillance applications. This endeavor incorporates cutting-edge electronics, precision GPS guidance, and advanced sensors, addressing…

Ensuring Feasibility and Stability of Model Predictive Control in Nonlinear Systems with Non-Overshooting Constraints

This research addresses the feasibility and stability challenges of Model Predictive Control (MPC) in highly nonlinear systems, focusing on the use of terminal constraints and cost. Through a comprehensive literature review, it explores various approaches to guaranteeing MPC stability and feasibility. The study includes theoretical analysis and practical simulations using MATLAB and Simulink. The findings…

Open Air Plasma Sintering of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate (LLTO) Solid Electrolyte

Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) has gained attention as a potential solid-state battery electrolyte, offering advantages over traditional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. This study examines various LiPON compositions in comparison to other solid electrolytes, focusing on their ionic conductivity — a key factor for solid-state electrolyte efficiency. Several external factors, including coating quality, solution preparation,…

An Investigation of the Effect of Storage Temperature on Secondary Battery Shelf Life

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the difference in the battery capacity in terms of Remaining Useful Life (RUL) depending on the storage temperature. Charging and discharging the secondary battery will be conducted with Galvanostatic Cycling with Potential Limitation (GCPL) and the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) methods in different battery conditions and…

Development of Non-Overshooting Model Predictive Control with Terminal Constraints and/or Costs

The topic involves theoretical findings regarding the development of terminal constraints and/or costs for non-overshooting Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. The researcher established two pathways to guarantee the stability and feasibility of the solution. The traditional methods of using terminal constraints to achieve stability and feasibility were briefly discussed and tested. The newer technique by…

Crislana Rafael works on a FURI research project remotely from Utah as an online student.

Accessible Education Platform Development for the Employment Assistance & Social Engagement (EASE) Program

This project involves designing a digital platform to enable student success for participants enrolled in ASU’s EASE program. During the spring semester, a survey was designed to gather feature suggestions from EASE mentors and mentees. Data gathered from this survey helped shape an early prototype of the platform. During the fall semester, efforts were focused…

Scaling of All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells through Improved Thermomechanical and Optoelectrical Stability

Perovskite solar cells (PSC) have recently risen in popularity as a competitor to traditional silicon solar cells due to its potential for low-cost processing and tunability. All-inorganic CsPbI3 is a type of high bandgap perovskite that is more compositionally and thermally stable in comparison to their organic counterparts, making it ideal for tandem solar cells….

Scaling of All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells through Improved Thermomechanical and Optoelectrical Stability

Currently, silicon solar cells are the industry standard for solar technology. However, perovskites solar cells (PSC) have recently proven to be a competitor due to its potential for low-cost processing and high efficiency. All-inorganic CsPbI3 is a group of perovskites that have been proven to be more compositionally and thermally stable in comparison to their…

Computer science major Neha Balamurugan works in the Dreamscape Learn facilities on a FURI project to use virtual reality for better data visualization.

Immersive and Interactive Visualizations using Virtual Reality

This research aims to build and investigate virtual reality (VR) tools designed to enrich educational experiences. Key features of this work currently include a 3D graph visualizer, a student engagement tracker, a climate data globe, and stock market visualizer. By seamlessly integrating these features into the learning environment, this research aims to transform traditional education…

Accelerating the Discovery of High-K Oxides for Future Generations of Semiconducting Devices through Computational Simulations

The improvement of semiconducting devices and the implementation of the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America Act (CHIPS and Science Act), facilitates the need to find an alternative to traditional silicon dioxide in semiconductors. High-k oxides have emerged as a promising material to enhance the performance and scaling down of semiconducting devices. High-k…

Energy Optimization and Scalability for a Millimeter-Wave Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) can be used to enhance signal reception in wireless communications without consuming power from the grid. Future wireless communication systems will leverage millimeter waves (>30 GHz), sacrificing obstacle penetration for speed. RISs are large arrays of elements that can be controlled to create either a 0 or 180 degree reflected phase…

Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation and State of Health Evaluation for Second-Life Applications

Demand and use of Lithium-Ion batteries have increased over time due to their application in electric vehicles and other clean energy technologies. Given the widespread use of Lithium-Ion batteries, enhancing their reusability and exploring second-life applications has become a major focus. In this research, Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) testing is performed on two different cathodes…

Extracting Mass Moments of Inertia of Non-Uniform Objects Using a Trifilar Pendulum

The moment of inertia of a body is the mass property that comes in when trying to accelerate/decelerate a body in rotation. It involves the total mass of the body but also how it is distributed around the point of rotation. Formulas to determine them are available for simple bodies, but for complex parts, e.g.,…

Improving Succinate Production in E. coli through Substrate Channeling

Engineering bacteria provides a sustainable route for the production of succinate, an important platform chemical. The E. coli strain KJ122 can produce up to 80 g/L succinate, but is potentially limited by the kinetics of the enzyme Pck, which carboxylates phosphoenolpyruvate using CO2 as a substrate. This project attempts to link Pck and a carbonic…

Closed-Loop Control for High Frequency Variable Inductor System

Designing variable passive devices comes with a set of challenges regarding parasitic effects. By saturating magnetic materials, the permeability can be modulated to achieve dynamic control of inductance based on AC inputs. However, measuring voltages and currents at the AC input risks the fidelity of the signal yet is necessary to induce a DC current…

Overexpression of Cyanobacterial Hydrogenase to Increase Biomass Productivity in the Dark

The goal for this project is to genetically modify cyanobacteria such that they produce an excessive amount of the enzyme hydrogenase. This is achieved by replacing the natural promoter of hydrogenase genes with two powerful synthetic promoters, Pcpt and J23119. This will allow the altered strain to use hydrogen as an energy source to continue…

Optimization of Control Software for Continuous Printing of Metal with Multiple Materials Using C++

This research endeavors to revolutionize metal 3D printing through the optimization of control software. By harnessing C++ programming, we aim to precisely regulate printing speed and video projection, enabling the creation of intricate, high-resolution green parts. The project’s broader impact lies in the potential to usher in a new era of highly adaptable, metal-based 3D…

Deep Gaussian Process and Reinforcement Learning Approach to Adaptive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing

This study’s objective is to examine the viability of an adaptive maintenance system in semiconductor manufacturing using Deep Gaussian Processes (DGPs) and Reinforcement Learning (RL). This innovative approach could revolutionize maintenance procedures, offering proactive solutions that increase equipment reliability and reduce operational downtimes, providing substantial benefits to the semiconductor industry. The research may also open…

Drought Prediction Using Machine Learning

This research focuses on the usage of Random Forests, a machine learning approach, to predict droughts to help communities with water resource management. Leveraging meteorological data from the U.S. Drought Monitor — an authoritative drought assessment crafted by experts from diverse sources — and Landsat remotely sensed imagery, this study explores the feasibility of meteorological…

Evaluation of Air Retention of 3D printed Biomimetic Super-Hydrophobic Structures

This research aims to study the air retention properties of Salvinia Molesta, a floating fern, by studying and mimicking its eggbeater structures. Employing electrically assisted vat photopolymerization, the objective is to study and improve the air retention capacity of the artificial superhydrophobic structures. By controlling MWCNTs (Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes) concentration and their alignment during…

Investigating the Stability Effects of Polyvinylpyrrolidone Additive on 2D Perovskite Solar Materials

Perovskite (PVK) semiconductor materials show great promise for solar windows due to their tunable transparency. Two-dimensional (2D) PVK are more stable than other types but still lack the stability desired for windows. This work aims to enhance the electrical and mechanical properties of PVK by incorporating Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) into two different classes of 2D PVK—Ruddlesden-Popper…

Real-Time Force and Moment Feedback of a Hexarotor Drone

DC motors in multirotor drones are typically controlled via Pulse Width Modulation signals. These signals, however, have varied frequencies at different battery percentages and constant control signals. This leads to difficulties in controlling motor forces while flying the drone. To address this issue, this research models the correlation between motor angular velocity and thrust. To…

Revolutionizing Formaldehyde Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells with Additive-Mediated Ion Migration Control

Harnessing the power of ionic additives, our research studies Formamidinium lead iodide perovskite solar cells, a stable class of materials that is often difficult to process due to phase transitions to non-semiconductor phases. This research will tackle mobile ion migration, a key hurdle in perovskite technology with alkali cation additives that enable crystallization based on…

Simulation and Fabrication of Trench Schottky Diodes on Ga2O3 for Applications in High Voltage DC Power Conversion

The ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) semiconductor β-Ga2O3 has widely been celebrated during past decade, especially because of its wider bandgap of 4.9eV, high theoretical breakdown field of 8MV/cm and superior Baling’s Figure of Merit (BFOM) of 3444. Moreover, BFOM of β-Ga2O3 not only surpasses that of other wider bandgap (WBG) semiconductors like GaN and SiC by…

Exploration of Potential Anisotropic Optical Properties of Triclinic SiGe Lattices

This project uses Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory, to simulate and predict light emission from triclinic silicon-germanium alloys. With atomic level simulations done on the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) of triclinic lattices to observe potential direct band gaps. With silicon light emission comes the viability of communication through photons, enabling data to…

Implications of Open-Air Manufacturing of Robust Perovskite Thin Films Enabled by Food Industry Additive

While silicon modules have become the industry standard for solar energy, perovskite materials hold the potential for making high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells through solution processing of Earth-abundant materials. Interestingly, unmodified perovskite inks suitable for small-scale laboratory production yield poor results when processed with scalable methods like blade coating. This research aims to study the effects…

Resolution-Invariant Image Classification via Implicit Neural Representations: An Application to Medical Whole-Slide Imaging

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have achieved remarkable success in image recognition and classification. However, prevailing network architectures demonstrate constraints regarding the input resolution they can process effectively. This study introduces an approach that leverages implicit neural representations extracted from images at varying resolutions as input to neural networks. Such a methodology is particularly advantageous for…

Synthesis And Characterization Of Naturally-Derived Silk Fibroin Fibers And Films For The Design Of Nonmetallic Tunable And Tissue Responsive Fixation Devices In Regenerative Surgery

Polymers are widely used for bone tissue engineering but none have been used for bone fixation. Only silk fibroin (SF) is being considered due to its superior mechanical properties among polymers. In this study, cocoons produced by silkworms, were degummed, dissolved, dialyzed and centrifuged to recover SF after which its morphology, functional groups and mechanical…

Enhancing Arterial Tissue Digestion Methods for Deeper Insights into Arterial Disease

It is hypothesized that time-dependent analysis of enzymatic digestion incubation used to dissociate cells from the surrounding tissue scaffold will reveal optimal digestion time. This study has two primary objectives: firstly, to ascertain the most effective enzymatic digestion duration that enhances cell yield and viability; secondly, to employ flow cytometry for the comprehensive characterization of…

Analyzing Natural Silk’s Degradability: Assessing its Suitability in Engineering Fracture Fixation Devices

The research involves domestically farming Bombyx mori silkworms from egg to cocoon stage, extracting of natural silk from the cocoons, and examining its degradation rates. Using natural silk as a biomaterial in fracture fixation devices like bone screws can facilitate the healing of fractured bones, retain the mechanical strength of the newly formed bone tissue,…

Synthesis and Processing of Hydroxyapatite Thin Films and Coatings for Translational Orthopaedic Surgical Implant Applications

There is an unmet clinical need for non-metallic, orthopedic surgical implant fixation devices. The present study focuses on the development of a calcium phosphate bioceramic, hydroxyapatite (HA) that has the desired mechanical strength to replace metal biomaterials. Among the different techniques to synthesize HA, sol-gel technology is the most versatile materials engineering process to form…

Utilizing Neural Networks with Molecular Dynamics to Design High-Entropy Functional Alloys for Thermoelectric Technology

The standard approach of discovering thermoelectric materials is costly and very complex. In this current study, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) will be utilized to select elements and determine the compositions. GNNs use message passing to organize graphs so machine learning algorithms can use them. With the knowledge that machine learning can extract, the key characteristics…

Applying ChatGPT to Extract Mind Maps For Resource Evaluation

Students are increasingly using automated summary tools such as ChatGPT in order to quickly analyze the exponentially increasing volume of information they have access to for research projects. This project seeks to build an automated tool using ChatGPT that builds more accurate, concise, and digestible summaries in the form of mind maps, which are graphical…

Utilizing a Machine Learning Algorithm for Wideband Channel Estimation and Signal Prediction

The objective of this research project is to use a software defined radio (SDR) to build a wideband channel estimation dataset and show its usage with machine learning algorithms to predict channels and localize users for fast and latency-intolerant communications. The researchers use tools developed by existing literature to understand the dynamics of channel estimation….

Dopant Distributions for Visible Light Absorption in Photocatalytic Nanoparticles

Photocatalytic nanoparticles are an attractive solution for renewable energy production because of their ability to produce hydrogen fuel using only sunlight and water. To increase the efficiency of these photocatalysts, it is theorized that rhodium atoms must be uniformly doped within the nanoparticles. To confirm if the dopant distributions are uniform, scanning transmission electron microscopy…

Accumulation of β-Ketoadipate to Create Biopolymers Using Engineered Corynebacterium Glutamicum

The goal of this research is to determine if β-ketoadipate (βKA), a chemical compound, can be produced from an engineered strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum when fed lignin-derived aromatics. This study attempts to determine the effects on βKA production when the strain is fed varying aromatics and also looks to investigate how metabolism of the strain…

Multimodal Self-Supervised Approach to Text-to-Music Generation

Discrete Music Language Models have the ability to generate musical pieces with various genres in discrete formats such as MIDI and piano roll, which offers more flexibility and customizability. Meanwhile, recent works show that current Discrete Music Language Models have limitations when it comes to the relationship between text and music domains, which raises challenges…

Biomedical engineering major Ava Claire Lariego (left) works with faculty mentor SungMin Sohn on a FURI research project to develop a new material to improve magnetic resonance imaging.

Design of a Thin and Stretchable Metamaterial Cap to Enhance MRI Image Quality

The research team is investigating the efficacy and accuracy of the application of an artificially made, stretchable metamaterial designed with specific electromagnetic properties. The conductive metamaterial is designed to be worn by a patient inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine. Its performance will be measured by its ability to increase the magnetic field intensity…

Promoter Engineering for the Construction of Glucose-Inducible Promoters

This research aims to engineer DNA constructs with glucose-inducible promoters for the expression of targeted marker proteins inside Escherichia Coli. J23100-CAP, CAP1-ptsG, pCAR, J23110-MLC4, and MLC4-J23110 are the promoter base combination that will be chosen for the study. The catabolite activator protein appears in the first two promoters and will be compared with the rest…

Moisture-Swing Polymer@textile Composites for CO2 Capture

Quaternary ammonium-containing sorbents have significant potential in direct air capture (DAC) of CO2. In DAC sorbents, the adsorption of CO2 can occur at lower concentrations, which allows for mitigation of global warming caused by the excess CO2 already in the atmosphere. The project investigates the modification of textiles into polymer@textile composite membranes with improved mechanical…

Scenario-Based Testing and Driving Assessment Metrics Validation

As the automobile industry transitions toward deploying automated vehicles, lingering concerns exist about safety and public trust. To attain public trust, it is imperative to first establish the safety of the AVs through a safety case-based framework. This project focuses on a component of the framework, scenario-based testing to assess the performance of the AV…

The Release of Alpha-Ketoglutarate from Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for Bone Repair Applications

Currently, autograft and allograft bones are the only options for treating bone loss, however, they pose many limitations. Immunomodulatory alpha-ketoglutarate (aKG) is of interest due to its ability to modulate osteoblast and osteoclast activity. By generating polymeric microparticles with aKG (paKG MPs), the release of aKG can be sustained upon degradation. The formulation of paKG…

Video Game-Based Domain Generalization for Computer Vision

This research project seeks to introduce a fresh dimension to the field of Domain Generalization (DG) in computer vision. It aims to achieve this by developing a unique benchmark dataset composed of scenes from video games. Unlike current benchmarks, our dataset encompasses transitional phases in video game graphics. The project encompasses data gathering, data refinement,…

Adaptive and Accessible Data Acquisition for Platform-Independent Water Quality Monitoring

This research project addresses the financial challenge data acquisition devices (DAQ) pose in water quality monitoring. DAQ systems are essential because data collection involves numerous sensors that output multiple signal types. However, they are often cost-prohibitive and hamper access to effective monitoring, obstructing water quality assessments globally. This research project aims to develop a universal…

Computer science major Vishal Juneja (left) works with faculty mentor Yan Shoshitaishvilli (right) on a project to improve the security and reliability of software by improving the Google error-detecting tool called AddressSanitizer.

Dissecting Google’s AddressSanitizer (ASAN)

AddressSanitizer (ASAN) is a widely used memory error detector, but it can cause time and memory overhead. The objective of this research is to understand ASAN better and to find solutions to make it more efficient. The research team has identified how shadow memory works and is currently working to identify the components of the…

Deconvolution of the Mechanical Effects in Atomic Force Microscopy Material Characterization of Living Cells

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been extensively used to determine the mechanical properties of materials ranging from ceramics to living soft tissue. There is an increasing use of AFM for the characterization of biological structures, which has resulted in new diagnostic techniques. However, the effects of cell size, substrate and inclusion presence on AFM measurements…

Using Intrathecal Methods to Improve Photoacoustic Imaging of Contrast Agents in Rats

This research project aims to enhance photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of chemical nanosensor diffusion by investigating the intrathecal injection of contrast agents in rats. The objective is to improve the delivery of these nanosensors through the blood-brain barrier while maintaining sensitivity and specificity in PAI detection. By optimizing nanosensor delivery and developing stable PAI probes, this research has…

Investigating Barrier Properties of Laminate Packaging Materials for Flexible Batteries

As some modern wearable devices are being innovated, it becomes essential to utilize flexible batteries. Normal batteries are rigid and may not be a good fit for some of these devices. Flexible batteries should come across intense movements and be able to supply power effectively. The battery is sealed in a polymer packaging material to…

Deep Learning Based Changepoint Detection for Robot Learning

The research team is developing an algorithmic approach for changepoint detection to segment complex, long-horizon tasks into smaller, more manageable subtasks for robot learning. By utilizing statistical testing methods and video encoding models, we aim to reduce computational complexity and enable efficient learning in high-dimensional robotics domains. The anticipated outcomes include precise task segmentation, successful…

A Quantitative Study on the Effect of Rotation Rate on Radiation Heat Transfer in a Rotary Drum

Rotary drums are used in industries such as cement, pharmaceuticals, and other particulate sectors; thus, research on various parameters will increase operating efficiency and lead to energy savings. The current study focused on the effect of particle size on radiation heat transfer inside a rotary drum. The rotation rate was varied from 2-10 RPM with…

Multimodal Interlaminar Fracture of Soft/Hard Layered Materials

This research study aims to enhance the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) method developed for reducing the effects of delamination in composite materials. Despite several revisions of previous research studies, the strain energy release rates and geometric nonlinearities that arise remain significant. As such, this study will attempt to address these challenges and develop a standardized technique…

Optimal Pin Fin Density

This project explores optimal pin fin employment and density for heat sink applications in harsh environments. Heat sinks are used to manage heat dissipation on electronics under thermal loads. Heat sinks are commonly used in central processing units (CPUs) in computers because when running heavy processing programs, computers tend to heat up, which can lead…

Electrical engineering major Jacob Burrows works on a FURI research project to improve semiconductor performance and longevity.

Low-Temperature Reduction of Metal Oxide Semiconductors Using Open-Air Plasma

This research proposal focuses on using open-air plasma technology to reduce metal oxidation in semiconductor components that can degrade performance, specifically in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The open-air plasma system utilizes a blown arc discharge to generate reactive species and convective heat, enabling rapid oxide reduction on metal surfaces (i.e., copper, tin, and nickel). Characterization…

Innovative Magnetic Field Design and Modulation for 3D Printing Biomimetic Microrobots with Programmable Material Distribution

The project consists of aiding the development of an innovative design for helical microrobots by creating a magnetic field generating device. Since the microrobots being developed are magnetic, a magnetic field will aid in testing by creating a rotating magnetic field that actuates the robots, and in manufacturing by aligning the ferrous particles during 3D…

Characterizing Anti-Perovskite Films for Solid-State Electrolytes in Batteries

This semester’s project was designed to enhance the performance of last semester’s anti-perovskite films as solid-state electrolytes for use in battery cells, and focused on characterizing lithium oxygen nitrate, Li3ONO3. Thin films of this material were created by dissolving lithium nitrate, lithium oxide and ethanol, then blade coating the solution onto silicon substrates. After sintering,…

Diversity Measures: Domain-Independent Proxies for Failure in Language Model Queries

This research examines the correlation between a language model’s uncertainty — quantified via “diversity measures” — and its reasoning abilities. The research team evaluates aspects of the model’s diversity measures that are strong indicators of it being correct. Doing this provides valuable insights into the capabilities of language models and allows users to further improve…

Manufacturing engineering graduate student Mohammed Bawareth works on a MORE research project to advance the understanding of how an additive manufacturing technology that uses sound vibrations can improve the energy efficiency of metal 3D printing.

A study on Aluminum Voxels Characteristics Deposited by a New Metal 3D Printing Method

Resonant-Assisted Deposition (RAD) is an emerging metal additive manufacturing technology that shapes metal wire to form three-dimensional objects. Fundamentally, the physics of this solid-state technique utilizes mechanical energy in the form of small-frequency oscillatory strains to soften metals for forming and joining of voxels into 3D parts line by line and layer by layer. The…

Synthesis of Algae-Derived MgO/Zn-Modified Activated Carbon for Nitrate and Phosphate Removal

With limited fresh water available on Earth, pollutants such as fertilizer run-off and sewage create high nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus that threaten the future of safe, drinkable water. One way to remove and recover these nutrients from water includes adsorption using activated carbon. Algae biomass is a cheap and fast-growing carbon source that…

Propositional Logic Frameworks in Perception Tasks App

Huge pretrained Artificial Intelligence models have become ubiquitous in various Perception based tasks. Although it is not always possible to deploy such models or even train such models, even partially when the task is to apply them to new use cases, especially in the field of vision. Therefore, it is of considerable interest that new…

3D Printing of Membranes with Bioinspired Porous Structures for Water Treatment

With limited water resources readily available it is pertinent to discover new ways of filtering water to provide clean water resources to communities. To filter water more efficiently these processes were tested. Polymerization induced phase separation is a process that takes a small monomer of a liquid crystal and combines chemically to form a bigger…

Maximize Solar Power by Solar Cell Reconfiguration Circuits

Can solar power be more efficiently extracted from a reconfigurable array by minimizing the number of switches, and allowing for maximum configuration flexibility? This research motivation stems from spacecraft solar systems where array performance can degrade from 20% to 50% over a 15-year mission. This research seeks to bypass damaged cells by reconfiguring the array…

Identifying the Optimal Orientation for Selecting Embedding Models for TCR-Epitope Binding Affinity Prediction

Accurate prediction of T cell receptor (TCR)-epitope binding results is crucial for personalized healthcare and immunotherapy. However, encoding TCR amino acid sequences into numerical representations remains challenging. A recent study demonstrated that catELMo, a bidirectional-LSTM-based model, outperformed Transformer-based models prevalent in Natural Language Processing. In this project, the reasons behind catELMo’s superior performance were investigated,…

Shape Optimization of Pin Fin Array in a Cooling Channel Using Genetic Algorithm

This research seeks to identify optimal pin fin shapes that minimize flow pressure drop and maximize heat transfer performance under varying heat loads and investigate the influence of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) parameters. The overarching goal is to uncover innovative pin fin configurations using a genetic algorithm, diverging from conventional circular cylindrical designs, while also…

Synthesis of Polymers to Make Membranes for Water Purification

This project seeks to examine the effect of different levels of functionalization of a polydimethylsiloxane-based (PDMS) membrane on the efficacy of the membrane in removing contaminants from water. The separation method being studied in this project is pervaporation, and the efficacy of the membranes will be gauged by permeance, flux, and selectivity when removing organic…

Cyber Challenges for Novice Learners

This research project explores the creation of interactive cybersecurity challenges tailored to enhance student skills and interest, spotlighting phone phreaking techniques like the Blue Box and the 2600 Hz exploit. Phone phreaking, born from a blend of technical curiosity, exploration, and a desire for cost-free communication, played a pivotal role in the history of telecommunications….

Effects of High Temperature Annealing on VO2 Phase Transition Temperature

In this study, the objective is to determine how annealing VO2 at high temperatures affects the phase transition temperature and the change in transmittance between the metallic and insulating phases. The transmittance of VO2 films doped with different levels of tungsten annealed at different temperatures was tested at a range of temperatures to determine this…

Mechanical engineering major Tyler Norkus works on a FURI project to advance semiconductor knowledge by simulating what happens to different materials during the manufacturing of semiconductor devices at very small scales.

Finite Element Analysis of Atomic Force Microscopy Measurement of Heterogeneous Nodules Suspended in a Membrane with Application in the Semiconductor, Health, and Security Industries

The semiconductor industry — among others — produces products with nanoscale-level precision, and inclusions and other particles within those products affect their macro- and micro-scale material properties. To improve products, particles and the surrounding material must be examined and analyzed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique that has been used to characterize such…

Metabolic Gene Expression Changes in Neural Organoids During Key Timepoints in Development

This research investigates the metabolic programs and alterations in glycolysis that influence neural development in distinct neural cell types. By studying gene expression changes of glycolysis genes in neural organoids, derived from human pluripotent stem cells, the research team aims to understand the normal function of metabolism in the development of human progenitors and neurons…

Engineering major Gwen Eging (right) works with faculty mentor Ayan Mallik (left) to design batteries that are charged by movement for applications such as wearables.

Kinetically Charged Batteries — Development and Optimization

Harnessing kinetic energy from everyday movement can revolutionize various fields, from prosthetics to smartphones. This project focuses on effective optimization and the amplification of kinetically charged batteries, unlocking the possibility of extended use of devices between charges. The setup size was a constraint on the end product, as it needs to be portable and versatile…

Unraveling Speech Processing in Humans: Insights from Neural Signals

Analyzing neural signals in Wernicke’s area and the Face Motor Cortex during speech to understand language processing. Using a dataset from an epilepsy patient, this research examines correlations between speech perception and production. The study aims to uncover common trends in speech processing, identify speakers, and explore the relationship between the Wernicke’s area and Face…

Using Biomechanical and Physiological Parameters as a Predictive Model for Negative Postsurgical Outcomes

The study will use three objective measurements (speed, posture, and heart rate variability) to make a model that allows for a short-term prediction of the consequences following a canine spay or neuter surgery. These consequences will be called negative post-surgical outcomes which include death and illness. The researchers posit that change in these movement variability…

Magnetic Micro-Robots for Medical Applications

The primary objective of this research is to design, construct, and evaluate magnetic robots capable of conducting early diagnosis, surgery, drug delivery, and various other medical procedures within the human body. Robotic surgery and rehabilitation have become prevalent in medical centers today. Magnetic robots, in particular, hold immense potential for medical diagnosis and treatment. These…

Surface Effects Mapping of a Multirotor in Close Proximity to the Ground, Ceiling, and Walls

Multirotors are used in applications such as surveillance, search and rescue, and package delivery. However, close-proximity flights near surfaces affect stability and performance. Of the Surface Effects (SE), only ground effect has been studied in depth, however this project aims to build a comprehensive SE model using a hexarotor fixed onto a force/torque sensor. An adjustable…

Effects of Lithium Carbonate on Lithium Lanthanum Zirconium Oxide Ionic Conductivity and the Adhesion Properties

Lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZO) is a solid-state battery electrolyte that will provide an excellent comparison to its competitor, lithium-ion batteries, which use liquid electrolytes. In this research, various forms of LLZO along with other solid-state battery electrolyte materials will be used to study ionic conductivity and adhesion properties. These parameters are important to observe…

Low-Temperature Reduction of Metal Oxide Semiconductors Using Open-Air Plasma

This research proposal focuses on using open-air plasma technology to reduce metal oxidation in semiconductor components that can degrade performance, specifically in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The open-air plasma system utilizes a blown arc discharge to generate reactive species and convective heat, enabling rapid oxide reduction on metal surfaces (i.e., copper, tin, and nickel). Characterization…

Analysis of In Vitro Applications of Synthetic Hydrogels to Develop Characteristic Structures for Type I Diabetes Treatments

Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) is a chronic, life-long condition in which a patient’s pancreatic beta cells fail to produce sufficient amounts of insulin, leading to hyperglycemia or high blood sugar levels. Typical treatments involve frequent monitoring via continuous glucose monitors (CGM) or blood glucose monitors followed by daily insulin injections. Optimized synthetic or natural…

Civil engineering major Othman Al-Alawi works on a FURI research project to harness drones with thermal cameras to help evaluate sustainable pavement treatments' impact on heat islands.

Thermal Mapping of Pavement Surfaces to Evaluate Effectiveness of Sustainable Pavement Technologies

Drone imagery has produced accurate two-dimensional maps, elevation models, thermal maps, and three-dimensional maps. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), also known as drones, has become ubiquitous in various civil engineering applications such as bridge inspection, building construction progress, monitoring, erosion control, etc. Artificial intelligence and deep learning brought further added value to the…

Prediction of Agricultural Droughts Using Deep Learning

This research harnesses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to predict agricultural droughts, a costly disaster affecting food security and the environment. By analyzing two-dimensional remote sensing data, CNNs offer a novel approach. Aligned with the themes of Data and Sustainability, this study aims to enhance data-driven decision-making and mitigate climate change-related hazards. The anticipated outcome is…

Multimodal Interlaminar Fracture of Soft/Hard Layered Materials

This research study aims to enhance the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) method developed for reducing the effects of delamination in composite materials. Despite several revisions, the strain energy release rates and geometric nonlinearities that arise remain significant. As such, the study will attempt to address these challenges and develop a standardized technique to improve interlaminar fracture…

Accelerating the Discovery of High-k Oxides for Future Generations of Semiconducting Devices through Computational Simulations

The improvement of semiconducting devices, coupled with the implementation of the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America Act (CHIPS and Science Act), facilitates the need to find an alternative to traditional silicon dioxide in semiconductors. High-k oxides have emerged as a promising material to enhance the performance and scaling down of semiconducting devices….

Video Game-Based Domain Generalization for Computer Vision

This research project aims to provide a new challenge to Domain Generalization (DG) in computer vision by creating a novel benchmark dataset made from video game scenes. Research project benchmark uses transitional generations of video game graphics as image domains unlike existing benchmarks. The project involves data collection, data cleaning, and manual annotation. Once the…

Identifying the Optimal Orientation for Selecting Embedding Models for TCR-Epitope Binding Affinity Prediction

Accurate prediction of T cell receptor (TCR)-epitope binding results is crucial for personalized healthcare and immunotherapy. However, encoding TCR amino acid sequences into numerical representations remains challenging. A recent study demonstrated that catELMo, a bi-LSTM-based model, outperformed Transformer-based models prevalent in Natural Language Processing. In this project, we investigate the reasons behind catELMo’s superior performance,…

Computational Discovery of Novel Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

This project examines the impact of dopants on the energy and conductivity of Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) through density functional theory simulations. The lowest energy state likely to exist in nature is sought in combination with the highest conductivity to identify the optimal pairing. The results indicate the potential for customized material design, as specific dopants…

An Independent Evaluation of ChatGPT on Math Word Problems

This research examines the performance of a large-language model known as GPT-3.5 in solving math word problems. The research team evaluates aspects of the model’s response that are strong indicators of it being correct. Doing this provides valuable insights into the capabilities of GPT-3.5 in tackling mathematical problem-solving tasks and allows the researchers to better…

3D Printing of Microrobots with Iron Hydroxide

This project studies the effectiveness of how iron hydroxide impacts the rotations of the micro-helices and its structure’s durability. Iron hydroxide in liquid polymer resin is placed under a magnetic field to form the helix. The helix is printed one layer at a time. The magnetic field alignment varies by each layer, which results in…

Production of Flexible Perovskites to Characterize Their Electrical Properties Using Mechanical Strain

Due to perovskite’s direct band gap, perovskites are more efficient than silicon and can be produced at lower thicknesses. The lightweight possibilities of perovskites allow for flexible devices to be made. To learn more about flexible perovskites, perovskite ink is deposited on a plastic substrate. Once perovskite films on plastic are made, the external radiative…

Synthesis of Polymers to Make Membranes for Water Purification

This project seeks to examine the effect of different levels of functionalization of a polydimethylsiloxane-based (PDMS) membrane on the efficacy of the membrane in removing contaminants from water. The separation method being studied in this project is pervaporation, and the efficacy of the membranes will be gauged by permeance, flux, and selectivity when removing organic…

Using Measurements from Canine Gait, Heart Rate Variability, and Posture as a Predictive Model for Postoperative Spay or Neuter Surgical Outcomes

The study will use three objective measurements (speed, posture, and heart rate variability) to make a model that allows for a short-term prediction of the consequences following a canine spay or neuter surgery. These consequences will be called negative post-surgical outcomes, which include death and illness. The researchers posit that change in these movement variability…

Magnetic Micro-Robots for Medical Applications

The primary objective of this research is to design, construct, and evaluate magnetic robots capable of conducting early diagnosis, surgery, drug delivery, and various other medical procedures within the human body. Robotic surgery and rehabilitation have become prevalent in medical centers today. Magnetic robots, in particular, hold immense potential for medical diagnosis and treatment. These…

Buck-Derived Active Buffer-Based Energy Storage System with Enhanced Reliability for Solar Microinverter

This work is aimed toward improving equipment reliability and power density of critical solar photovoltaic microinverter technology by replacing old DC link capacitor banks commonly comprised entirely of passive electrolytic capacitors (ECs), which detriment the achievable power density and reliability of the microinverter. These DC link EC banks, however, provide an essential energy storage function…

Metabolic Gene Expression Changes in Neural Organoids During Key Timepoints in Development

This research investigates the metabolic programs and alterations in glycolysis that influence neural development in distinct neural cell types. By studying gene expression changes of glycolysis genes in neural organoids, derived from human pluripotent stem cells, the research team aims to understand the normal function of metabolism in the development of human progenitors and neurons…

3D Printing of Membranes with Bioinspired Porous Structures for Water Treatment

With limited water resources readily available it is pertinent to discover new ways of filtering water to provide clean water resources to communities. To filter water more efficiently, crosslinked liquid crystals leave pores after exposure to light creating high hierarchical porous structures. These pores are then categorized through image processing which can measure the area,…

Ketone Analysis Through Non-Invasive Skin Biosensor

The measurement of ketones (FDA-approved fat oxidation biomarkers) allows for proactive weight management interventions, as well as for the management of conditions such as diabetes, obesity, anorexia, epilepsy, and more. There is a limited selection of ketone sensors available, many of which are extremely invasive (involving blood or urine tests) and tend to only measure…

Utilizing Software Defined Radio (SDR) to Implement a Cellular System Signal Decoder

The objective of this research project is to use a software defined radio (SDR) to implement a wireless communication receiver to decode cellular communications. We use existing open source fourth generation (4G) cellular receiver architecture found in the literature to understand the characteristics of 4G communications. We then identify the similarities with 5G communications in an…

Scaling of All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells through Improved Thermodynamic and Mechanical Stability

Currently, silicon solar cells are the industry standard for solar technology. However, the perovskite (PVSK) photosensitive semiconductor family of materials has recently proven to be a competitor due to its potential for low-cost processing and high efficiency. Inorganic PVSK is a group of PVSK that have been determined by researchers to be more compositionally and…

Applying ChatGPT to Extract Mind Maps For Resource Evaluation

Students are increasingly using automated summary tools such as ChatGPT in order to quickly analyze the exponentially increasing volume of information they have access to for research projects. This project seeks to build an automated tool using ChatGPT that builds more accurate, concise, and digestible summaries in the form of mind maps, which are graphical…

Cross-Linking Proteins with Unnatural Amino Acids

E. coli cells are great for creating proteins as they are stable and reproduce rapidly. Putting plasmids into E. coli cells and causing certain parameters to happen within the cell will allow the E. coli to produce proteins that involve putting in a stop codon in place of another amino acid. Looking at the proteins…

The Effect of Storage Temperature in Remaining Useful Life of Lithium Ion Battery

Remaining useful life (RUL) of rechargeable batteries can decay permanently when they are exposed to high temperature due to undesired material degradation. In this project, the research team investigates the effects of storage temperature in RUI by exposing one group of 40 mAh capacity rechargeable lithium-ion button-type batteries to room temperature (25℃), and one to…

Flow Modeling of Placenta-on-a-Chip

This project seeks to advance the Weaver Lab’s placenta-on-a-chip project. This microfluidic, 3D-printed chip will be used to evaluate human placental dynamics in vitro. The chip is printed using a FormLabs 3+ Printer with clear resin and conjoined through thermal adhesion with a microscope slide, after which the team will sterilize the chip so that…

Closing the Carbon Balance on a CO2-Fixing Membrane Bioreactor

Engineered Escherichia coli strains optimized for malate and succinate fermentation have the capacity to fix significant amounts of CO2. To overcome conventional mass transfer limitations, our research team is exploring the alternative delivery of CO2 to bioreactors via hollow-fiber membranes. A bioreactor is a reactor that sustains and supports life for cells and tissue cultures….

Real-Time Object Detection Using Image and Lidar Data

The system uses lidar and camera sensors in combination with an object detection model to identify vehicles and determine their distance from the sensor system. The purpose of this research project is to aid drivers in recognizing potential road hazards, and the technology could potentially be integrated into a car’s safety system to help prevent…

Chemically Recyclable Crosslinked Polydiene Elastomers Based on Thiol-Disulfide Exchange Reactions

Crosslinked polydiene elastomers are a class of synthetic rubbers that are widely used in numerous fields because they offer a broad range of chemical and physical properties that are tunable based on varying building blocks and crosslink density. Conventional polydiene elastomers are permanently crosslinked and cannot be reprocessed or reused after the product’s lifetime. The…

Accessible Education Platform Development for the Employment Assistance and Social Engagement (EASE) Program

The purpose of this project is to design a digital platform to enable student success for participants enrolled in ASU’s EASE program. For this spring semester, a survey created by the research team was taken by both EASE student mentors and mentees to rate the perceived usefulness of potential features to include in the digital…

Investigating HTL Decomposition of Microplastics in Soil

Fossil fuels are the most common source for energy. However, fossil fuels are not sustainable. As such, the purpose of this research is to develop an alternative fuel source that can be derived from sustainable materials. Sewage sludge can undergo hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to produce crude oil, char, and a gas phase. The biofuel can…

Ultrawide Bandgap Material for Our Future Power Electronics

To pursue technology like AI, curtail power losses, and combat global warming, it is imperative to transition from silicon devices to ultrawide bandgap (ex AlN or Ga2O3) devices. This project explores solutions to help make this transition and build a better energy future. The aim of this project is to help solve challenges inhibiting ultrawide…

Incorporation of Metal Nanoparticles in Polypyrrole Flexible Electrodes for Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine

Electrochemical sensors are a powerful tool for real-time measurement of target analytes of significance for different fields including environmental monitoring, clinical diagnostics, or even food technology. Implementation of sensors may require flexible adaptation to challenging geometries, especially when considering online monitoring and in vivo applications. Conductive polymers are unique sustainable materials that can collect electrical…

Background Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in Soils: Quantification and Implication for TPH Regulation

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution is a ubiquitous threat to public and environmental health. Current EPA regulations require measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for determining whether a contaminated site has been adequately remediated. State and federally mandated methods for measuring TPH are unable to discriminate between petroleum generated via drilling and distribution, and compounds generated from…

Automated PID Controller Using LabVIEW for Patch-Clamping Experimentation

Electrophysiology is a powerful technique for the examination of neuronal activity. Previously, a microscope-independent fluorescent-guided electrophysiology system was developed to track neurons for patch-clamping. However, the pressure system did not possess dynamic responses, only providing several options for pressure. By creating a proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-controlled pressure system to integrate into the pre-existing LabVIEW code for the…

Potential of Permeable Pavements to Manage Stormwater Runoff in Cities

The increase in impervious surfaces in urban areas leads to more flooding and groundwater issues. Permeable pavement systems (PPS) are considered one of the solutions to manage stormwater runoff volumes and help increase groundwater infiltration. As a result, these can also reduce evaporation and urban heat island mitigation. Hydraulic design and characterization of permeability characteristics…

Analysis of Vibrational EELS Datasets to Unravel the Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Ferroelastic Coupling in Oxides

Perovskite materials, such as lead titanate (PbTiO3), have emerged as a promising candidate for memory devices due to their exceptional ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Ferroelectric memory devices based on perovskite materials offer several advantages over conventional memory devices, including low power consumption, fast switching speeds, and high-density data storage. One of the key advantages of…

Evolving Corynebacterium glutamicum to Accelerate Growth for the Increased Production of Flavonoids

Flavonoids, aromatic organic molecules, have several properties that make them of pharmaceutical interest. By using metabolic engineering, Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) can be engineered to produce flavonoids from toxic aromatic monomers. By exposing C. glutamicum to high concentrations of these monomers, cells with appropriate mutations will outcompete those that received harmful mutations. Through this process,…

A Novel Method in Processing LiPON for Lithium Ion Battery

This research explores potential methods to synthesize lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) in three solution-based approaches: spin coating, doctor blade coating, and spray coating. With the challenge being nitrogen incorporation, precursor inks with nitrogen-containing compounds, nonthermal nitrogen plasma are also explored. Ionic conductivity measurement and x-ray diffraction are conducted to compare with current approaches. This sheds…

Engineering Escherichia coli for Sustainable Monoethanolamine Production

Industrial emissions contribute greatly to the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The development of new technologies to limit CO2 release is therefore a top priority for researchers. Monoethanolamine (MEA) is an organic compound that can be used to capture CO2 via chemical absorption in a process known as amine gas scrubbing. MEA does this…

Dual Cationic-Radical RAFT Photo-Polymerization for the Formation of Co-Polymers Under Ambient Conditions

Multi-material 3D printing as an additive manufacturing technique is growing in importance as a way to produce unique materials in a more sustainable fashion. Current processes are slow and require an inert environment free of oxygen and moisture. Furthermore, these final products are not easily reprocessed. This research explores creative methods to expedite light-controlled RAFT…

Social Navigation for Autonomous Vehicles

The main objective of this research project was to develop a computationally efficient motion planner that optimizes task efficiency and is collision averse. The motion planner incorporates 2D vehicle dynamics and produces trajectories that mirror human driving patterns. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed motion planner were evaluated through an interactive human driver dataset…

Testing the Effect of 3D Printed Electrolyte Structures on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Recent literature has highlighted the growing capability of printing the electrolyte layer of ceramic solid oxide fuel cells using additive manufacturing techniques, primarily to reduce manufacturing costs. The electrolyte layer allows the passage of oxygen ions to complete an electrochemical reaction. One previous study details an ink recipe that was able to create tall pillar…

Investigating the Impact of Higher Education Faculty’s Mental Health on Student Outcomes

The mental health of higher-education faculty is widely ignored in research. K-12 studies report high rates of mental health conditions and the negative impact this has on student outcomes (Parrish, 2022). The objective of this project is to quantify rates of mental health issues in this population and the resulting impact on pedagogical outcomes. A…

Contactless 3D Printing of Artificial Cells in Air for Biomedical Applications

Artificial cells mimic biological systems where biological materials are encapsulated by a thin membrane. Artificial cells are difficult to manufacture because of the complexity of intracellular compartments. This project studies the use of acoustic levitation to print single-core or multi-core artificial cells. Acoustic levitation is a contactless printing method, which provides new opportunities for manufacturing…

3D Printing of Silicon Anode with Bioinspired Porous Structures via Vat Photopolymerization (VPP) for Battery Applications

The slurry casting method used in the fabrication of silicon electrodes for commercial batteries restricts the shape and design of the electrodes. In contrast, 3D printing technology allows for the creation of customized and miniaturized electrode designs with complex features and configurations. This research aims to overcome the limitations of conventional battery manufacturing methods by…

Developing Meaningful Protein Embeddings Using Structural Information For Use in TCR-Epitope Binding Affinity Prediction Tasks

This project aims to develop an end-to-end machine learning pipeline that utilizes predicted protein structure from AlphaFold to estimate T Cell Receptor (TCR)-Epitope binding affinity. It has been long known that the exact structural composition of proteins is a major factor in the outcome of protein-to-protein interactions. Recent work at Google resulted in the creation…

Metal-Organic Frameworks for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Cars

Hydrogen (H2) fuel-cell cars can greatly reduce carbon emissions that are produced by fossil fuels and automobiles. Future energy strategies must include the use of hydrogen as a carrier for energy. However, issues with hydrogen storage limit its use as an energy carrier in vehicles and portable electronics. A great scientific and growing societal challenge…

Measuring and Controlling Mobile Ion Concentration to Improve Operational Stability in Perovskite Thin Films

Perovskite solar cells have seen one of the fastest improvements in the class of renewable energy in the past decade and they have shown a tremendous improvement in terms of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. This research is focused on improving operational stability by adding ionic additives to limit undesirable ionic motion while promoting desirable electronic motion…

Can Two-Parameter or Three-Parameter Weibull Model Represent Mechanical Properties and Topology of Interphase in Soft Polymer Nanocomposites?

There is a lack of statistical analysis on advanced nanocomposite systems’ anisotropic heterogeneous nanoscale properties. This study will focus on the statistical analysis using the nanoscale properties collected with atomic force microscopy (AFM) based peak force quantitative nanomechanical mapping technique (PFQNM). Atomic Force Microscopy testing is an ultra-precise method of PFQNM at the nano/micro level…

Effects of Aluminum Additions on the Plasticity and Fracture Behavior of Zirconium Silicide as a Surrogate for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

Uranium Silicide (U3Si2) offers several advantages over the typical nuclear fuel Uranium Oxide (UO2), but it is too brittle to be used safely. In this study, the effects of dopants on the plasticity and fracture behavior of U3Si2 will be investigated through the surrogate Zr3Si2 based on the hypothesis that the addition of aluminum will…

PiTE II: TCR-epitope Binding Affinity Prediction with Contribution From CDR3-Alpha, V, and J Genes

Accurate prediction of the binding affinity between T cell receptor (TCR) and antigen pairs is essential for developing immunotherapy strategies. Historically, prediction models considered only the complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the beta chain of the TCR, but recent developments have shown that incorporating more regions of the TCR in the prediction model can lead…

Thermal Stability Characterization of Perovskite Solar Cells

The question that this project seeks to address is: How does temperature cycling affect the operational stability of perovskite solar cells? With the high cost of silicon solar cell production, there is an opportunity arising in the manufacturing of cells with a particular molecular structure called perovskite. A fundamental aspect of solar panels is their…

Metal Oxide Alternatives Used in Chlorine Reduction to Hypochlorite for Nitrate Reduction Process

This study uses DFT to find the reaction path of chlorine reduction to hypochlorite on various metal oxides in hopes of finding a less expensive catalyst for chlorine reduction than IrO2. The metal oxide alternatives should be stable, have a band gap of zero, and have a tetragonal structure in order to closely resemble IrO2….

Determining Which Pedagogical Techniques Improve Outcomes in Students with Mental Health Disorder

50% of engineering students screen positive for a mental health disorder, compared to only 37% of non-engineering majors who screen positive. There have not been studies to show what type of teaching method professors can use in their classrooms to help their students through the rigorous coursework. The study’s objective is to identify which persuasive…

Mitigating Label Bias Through Probabilistic Modeling With Latent Variable

Supervised learning tasks rely on training data to make predictions and often assume them to be balanced and representative of real-world data. This proposal studies the effectiveness of notions of fairness like Equalized Odds (EO) and Equal Opportunity (EOP) in presence of label bias. We aim to discover hidden fair labels through probabilistic modeling and…

Computer science sophomore Rohan Nair

Global Supply Chains as Predictors of Activity

As detrimental legal, environmental, economic, or political events continue to be present in modern society, it becomes important to predict these activities before they occur. Studying the growing global buyer-supply network provides a unique approach in determining and predicting certain outcomes, as trade directly describes the health of industries, and thus by extension the welfare…

Data Visualization in Virtual Reality

The recent and rapid development of virtual reality technology has had a big impact in the entertainment industry. However, its benefits can likewise be reaped in educational settings by designing immersive learning experiences that enable engagement, strengthen understanding and improve retention of content. Facilitating the adoption of VR within classrooms requires bridging the instructors’ traditional…

Improving Behavior-Based Swarm Control Using Partially Specified Human Preferences

In this work, we explore a novel approach to improving behavior-based swarm control using partially specified human preferences. In order to address concerns about human-robot safety, we plan to incorporate human feedback in the form of user preferences over short clips of swarm behavior from non-expert users. To provide users with better expressiveness while specifying…

Active Matrix Memory Module

The objective of the research was to find an efficient, simple and cost-effective way of performing beam steering of an antenna array. Creating a prototype of the active matrix memory module on a breadboard showed the possibility of this simple design. The simulations of the antenna array have shown promising results at the specified frequency….

The Evolution of the Interphase of Heterogeneous Polymer Nanocomposite Systems with Hygrothermal Degradation

For the first half of the semester, a literature review has been conducted. The interphase in nanocomposites determines the mechanical properties of the bulk material. Properly characterizing the extent and properties of the interphase can be challenging due to the stress interaction effect. David W. Collinson et al. developed a novel method to determine if…

Multi-Conditional cGAN Model for Resistance Spot Welding Dataset

The Resistance Spot Welding technique has been widely employed in automotive and aeronautical industries. The advantages of utilizing this technique are that it is low cost, employs a high amount of current at low voltage, has high speed, and is reliable. RSW reduces weight while preserving strength. Defects commonly occur in the process, limiting its…

Interpolating Missing Synthetic Aperture Sonar Measurements

In our work, we evaluated different interpolation methods to enable the reconstruction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) images from limited angular measurements. If it succeeds, this work will inform practitioners and researchers to reconstruct SAS images with good fidelity, even with limited measurements. For future work, we foresee benefits in approaching the problem using more…

Flowability of Microcrystalline Cellulose in MFiX Simulations

This study presents an evaluation of predicted flow behavior and the minimum outlet diameter in a computationally simulated hopper. The Department of Energy’s MFiX software was used to create an industrial stainless-steel hopper using experimental data from an FT4 Rheometer, in accordance with Jenike’s hopper design methodology. A total of five size fractions and twelve…

Electromechanical Characterization of Nanomembrane of Soft Polymers with Nanoparticles on Rigid Substrates

Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (CAFM), is an accurate technique to characterize material properties of the nanomembrane of soft polymers. CAFM is performed by inserting an electric current within a CAFM probe. In this research the nanomembrane of soft polymers with nanoparticles is on rigid substrates, the effect of the rigid substrate on the nanomembrane will…

Plastic Domain of the Stress Field Between Nanoindentation and AFM PFQNM of Heterogeneous Materials

The author will propose research investigating multiple heterogeneous materials’ micro- and nano-mechanical characterizations in the plastic region using Nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). This research will address the mechanical properties and attempt to find a relationship between the stress fields evaluated at multiple scales. Investigating nanomechanical properties is key to developing materials that are…

The Effect of a Sports-Playing Background on Fall Risk in Younger Adults

Fall risk is a public health concern that affects older populations. The purpose of this study is to understand if an athletic background as a younger adult decreases fall risk. A separate study must be conducted to understand if those results translate to older populations. In this study, fall risk was measured between younger adult…

Thermoelectric Material Discovery Using Machine Learning

The conventional approach of discovering thermoelectric materials from an essentially infinite universe of chemical compounds includes costly and time-consuming studies. In the current study, thermoelectric properties (labels) and descriptors (features) of a group of substances are calculated using density functional theory (DFT) simulations. With the knowledge that machine learning (ML) can extract the key characteristics…

Assessment of Azide Functionalized RGD Binding in Synthetic PEG Hydrogels for Improvement of Encapsulated Cells’ Metabolic Function

Pancreatic islet encapsulation is a prospective methodology for reversing Type I diabetes (TID) by protecting beta cells from immune-cell destruction through a synthetic non-degradable hydrogel barrier. Strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) PEG hydrogels, utilizing copper-free click chemistry crosslinkers, show comparable baseline biocompatibility to thiol-maleimide PEG hydrogels. RGD, an extracellular matrix (ECM) peptide, greatly improves the metabolic…

Tuning the Composition of Perovskite Semiconductor Materials for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

Perovskites (PVK) are novel semiconducting materials that can be engineered to develop semitransparent semiconductors for use in solar window applications. This work revolves around modifying the cation and anion composition in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI3) PVK to increase the transparency and stability of the material. Introducing bromine, a smaller anion increases transparency but has adverse…

Hydrogen Embrittlement Prediction Using Machine Learning

With issues due to climate change rising, the global market is shifting to environmentally friendly energy sources. Hydrogen is a prime candidate because it does not give out any harmful emissions. When hydrogen is stored in metallic containers, the hydrogen molecules diffuse into the material, and this makes it more brittle by propagating cracks. This…

Tracking the Metabolic Respiration of Geobacter lovleyi, a Dechlorinating and Metal Reducing Bacterium Relevant to Bioremediation

Hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) industrial processing typically requires chlorinated solvents and CAHs, such as tetrachloroethene (PCE), for the purpose of cleaning machinery. Because of this, the co-contamination of U(VI) and PCE can be found at several Superfund sites. Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ is the only reductive bacteria identified as being capable of reducing PCE to 1,2-cis-Dichloroethene…

Gait Entrainment Using a Soft Robot Hip Exoskeleton

Asymmetrical walking is an indicator of unhealthy biomechanics that not only restricts movement but also disrupts posture and balance. This research aims toward improving the existing rehabilitation processes for post-stroke patients with asymmetrical walking by investigating the phenomenon of entrainment (synchronization of rhythms) and implementing it using a flexible, pneumatically controlled fabric-based actuator to improve…

Generating a Clonal Cell Line with an APOJ Knockout Mutation

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder destroying memory and cognition, with no sustaining treatment. AD can be studied using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and genomic modification strategies to create loss-of-function genes. Clusterin, or APOJ, is the third-greatest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. To create an APOJ loss of function mutation, BIG-TREE,…

Visible Light Photocatalysis: Studying Dopant Uniformity in Rhodium Doped Strontium Titanate

Photocatalytic nanoparticles can split water molecules using sunlight for renewable energy production. To increase the efficiency of these photocatalysts, rhodium atoms must be uniformly doped into the photocatalysts. In order to confirm whether or not the photocatalyst has been uniformly doped, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) has been…

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Substituted Zeolites

Zeolites are crystals with large, cage-like structures that contain aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and other elements. They are commonly used in industry as reactor catalysts or moisture absorbents. However, zeolites that contain metals in their frameworks have been shown by computer algorithms to absorb oxygen at low temperatures and pressures, giving them the possible use for…

Engineering the Cyanobacterial Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain to Improve Photosynthetic Efficiency

Due to increased energy demand, finding new alternative energy sources is now vital, and establishing a renewable energy source is a major challenge. Increasing the photosynthetic efficiency of phototrophic microorganisms, however, is important for meeting human needs. The primary cause of decreased energy conversion efficiency in living cells is susceptibility to leakage in electron transport…

Overexpression of Cyanobacterial Hydrogenase to Increase Biomass Productivity under Light-Limited Conditions

With rising concerns about climate change and the scarcity of fossil fuels, employing sustainable methods to generate carbon-based compounds is a must. One way of achieving this goal is through cyanobacteria. The high photosynthetic efficiency of these prokaryotes makes them suitable biorefineries for sustainable production. One limitation factor of photosynthetic efficiency is cyanobacteria self-shading. Enabling…

Effects of Wearable Exoskeletons on Human Thermophysiological Response

This research project aims to investigate the effects of wearable exoskeletons on human thermophysiological response. Both a stationary and a walking condition will be tested to represent different activity levels. The primary objective is to gain a deeper understanding of the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of exoskeletons to help in the design and development…

Civil engineering junior Lana Banzon (left) studies how to use mining waste products for concrete in the lab of Narayanan Neithalath (right), a professor of civil and environmental engineering, as part of a FURI research project.

An Investigation on the Effect of Alkali Source on the Properties of Akali-Activated Mine Tailing Blends

The study aims to characterize alkali-activated mine tailing blend properties such as reactivity, flowability, and compressive strength for potential grout applications. The obtained mine-tailing waste is found to be rich in silicates, which can be stabilized using alkali-activation technology. The pool of samples utilizing sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate as additives was narrowed down…

Cavitation Nucleation and Bubble Dynamics in Agarose Soft-gels Concentrations of .3% .75% and 1.1%: Image Analysis

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from head impact is a critical global public health issue affecting soldiers and contact sports athletes. Recent studies suggest that cavitation can indicate TBI. This research investigates cavitation nucleation and bubble dynamics in agarose soft-gels with concentrations of 0.3%, 0.75%, and 1.1%, which simulates brain tissue. Diametric data collected through image…

Measuring Mechanical Properties and Robustness of Perovskite Thin Film Energy Devices

Current trends in solar energy technology have developed “low-cost solar-cells” that exhibit high levels of efficiency, enough so to surpass popular silicon solar cells. This technology is called perovskite, made up of Methylammonium Lead Iodide perovskite, or MAPbI3. Due to the nature of this rapidly developing technology, there is not much knowledge about the mechanical…

Optimization of Monocyte-Mimicking Nanoparticles for Precise Targeting of Endothelial Inflammation

Endothelial inflammation is a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therapies that target endothelial inflammation represent a promising strategy for treating CVD. Our lab has established a monocyte-mimicking nanoparticle (MoNP) capable of actively targeting endothelial cells (ECs). To further improve the selective binding of MoNP to inflamed EC while avoiding healthy cells,…

Multiperiod Transmission Expansion Planning with Load Growth

This research proposes a comprehensive framework for multiperiod transmission expansion planning that considers load growth. The framework integrates both technical and economic aspects of the transmission system and employs optimization techniques to identify the most cost-effective expansion plan. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is tested through different systems. The framework can help transmission planners…

A New Method for Measuring Thin Film Stress Under Operational Conditions to Understand Perovskite Solar Cell Degradation

Perovskite is the new and upcoming material in the solar energy field. However, improvements in stability are necessary to create a marketable product. The perovskite ink has been modified to accommodate the viscosity requirements for blade-coating applications, but the resulting effects of the additives on material stress are not yet known. This research project focuses…

Creating an Enzyme Fusion to Improve Succinate Production

Engineering bacteria provides a sustainable route for the production of succinate, an important platform chemical. The E. coli strain KJ122 can produce up to 80 g/L succinate, but is potentially limited by the kinetics of the key enzyme, Pck, which carboxylates phosphoenolpyruvate using CO2 as a substrate. This project is exploring different strategies for linking…

Few Shot Learning for TCR-Epitope Binding Affinity Prediction

Project aims to develop a state-of-the-art TCR-epitope binding affinity prediction model for out-of-sample epitopes. The plan is to fine-tune a pre-trained amino-acid embedding model to predict the similarity between two TCRs, which can indicate their likelihood to bind to the same epitope, using L1 and MSE loss. To generate the training set, TCR-epitope pairs will…

Effect of Startle on Functional Tasks Requiring Multi-Joint Coordination

The research focuses on studying the effect of startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) on latency and accuracy of performing everyday tasks such as drinking water from a cup and feeding with a spoon. These are complex functional tasks requiring multi-joint coordination. The aim of this study is to translate the results to clinical trials to eventually…

Synthesis of Fuel Precursors Using Disposable Face Masks

This research aims to investigate the potential of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) for converting disposable face masks into fuel precursors. Face masks have been identified as a major environmental threat due to the lack of biodegradability and increased use due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These masks have created an environmental problem with solid waste along with…

Impact of Position Information on TCR-epitope Binding Affinity Prediction Model and Its Biological Significance

The binding of T cell receptor (TCR) and epitope plays an important role in the immune system. Machine learning models have been developed to predict the binding affinity of TCR-epitope pairs. One of the existing models using the Transformer architecture has shown a great capability for this task. However, the position information of TCRs and…

Sex Differences in the Bilateral Frontal Plane Ankle Stiffness During Standing with Different Weight Bearings

Ankle stability is essential for human locomotion, and ankle sprains are prevalent musculoskeletal injuries. This research will use a robotic platform to apply position perturbation to the ankle and measure corresponding ankle torque using force plates. The ankle stiffness will be modeled using the non-parametric system identification method, and the ankle angle will be measured…

Automated Core-Loss Tester for Non-Sinusoidal Signals

Core loss characteristics in magnetic materials play a critical role in the design of power electronic converters. Manufacturer-provided data on core loss characteristics is often collected over a limited operating range and unspecified core shape. Having the ability to directly test magnetic materials is extremely beneficial to the power electronics designer in producing high-performance power…

Depolymerization of PET Plastics Using Engineered Bacterium

Accumulation of plastic waste in oceans and landfills increasingly threatens marine, animal, and human life due to fragmentation into microplastics. It is estimated that 359 million tons of plastic is produced annually, half of which accrues in landfills. A substantial portion of this plastic is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Plasmid constructs have been developed for the…

A Feeding Apparatus to Interrogate Motor Deficits in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the risk of developing the disease doubling every five years after the age of 65 and 10.7% of individuals of this age having the disease. AD begins long before the appearance of classical symptoms like memory loss in a stage known as “preclinical AD”; however, no…

Optimization of a Targeted MRI Contrast Agent to Enhance Atherosclerosis Imaging

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in medical imaging, detecting atherosclerotic lesions at early stages remains a major challenge. This FURI project aims to characterize and optimize a novel lesion-targeted contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of atherosclerotic plaques recently developed in Assistant Professor Kuei-Chun Wang’s lab. The research will…

Chemical engineering major and FURI researcher Kelly Nguyen.

Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of Compost, Analyzing the Effect with Microplastic and Pesticide

The research conducted aims at understanding the effects of the solid, gas, and oil yields from HTL reactors, specifically that of compost. By adding controlled amounts of compost, microplastic in the form of PET, and a pesticide with the main active ingredient being silicon dioxide, the yields can vary drastically. Understanding the effects of pesticides on microplastics…

Inequity in the Engineering Faculty Workforce: How Marginalized Groups Used Signaling to Hedge from Discrimination

Despite the focus on diversity, women and minority faculty are still underrepresented in engineering. The research team aims to research one strategy that marginalized engineering faculty may have used to shield themselves from discrimination and examine its opportunity cost. Statistical discrimination means a decision-maker uses observable characteristics to infer gender or race/ethnicity for proxy discrimination….

Emergent Communication in Context-Dependent Scenarios: A Novel Approach to Language Creation

This project investigates the role of context-dependent scenarios in shaping emergent communication among agents that learn to interact without any pre-established linguistic system. A novel method to model context-dependent scenarios using multi-agent reinforcement learning is proposed, and the influence of various factors on the emergence of compositional, coherent, and adaptive communication is examined. The implications…

Bilateral Ankle Stiffness Characterization in Frontal Plane for Different Weight Loadings

Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is caused by the failure to get into treatment and rehabilitation after suffering an acute ankle sprain which is the most common injury of the ankle joint. Typical clinical assessment on ankle sprain is done under unloaded conditions although ankle sprain occurs during active or passive weight loading. Modeling bilateral ankle…

Identification of Freshwater Organisms Using Microwaves

Previous studies have shown that various pathogens and small organisms have a resonant frequency where they absorb more power than at other frequencies. This project seeks to develop tools to determine the effectiveness of using these resonant frequencies to identify specific freshwater organisms. This approach is reminiscent of the identification of specific molecules by the…

Characterizing mechanical Properties of Graphene-Copper Composite Wires

Recent research has shown the potential benefits of incorporating graphene into metal wires for high-power transmission applications. Graphene improves the current-carrying capacity of metal conductors and resistance to high thermal loads. In this project, the researcher compared the mechanical properties of standard annealed copper wires to graphene-coated copper wires through tensile testing. Strain data was…

Perovskite-Based Hyperbolic Metamaterials: Synthesis and Characterization

Hyperbolic metamaterials offer an exciting platform to create physical phenomena not possible in nature, such as high-spatial-frequency and super-resolution. The current development of hyperbolic metamaterials relies majorly on the nanofabrication of metal/dielectric multilayers or nanowires arrays, whose performance is largely limited by the size of the fabricated period. Here a novel hyperbolic metamaterial at the…

Electrical engineering senior Priyanka Ravindran (foreground), electrical engineering junior Hailey Warner (left) and Assistant professor Ivan Sanchez Esqueda (background)

Characterization of Emerging Devices that will Integrate Memristor and Transistor Functions for Brain-Inspired Computing

The implementation of neural network models in hardware has been widely researched in the field of neuromorphic computing. Drifting away from the Von Neumann architecture, neuromorphic hardware allows for higher computational efficiency and performance. In this project, an investigation of neuromorphic devices that integrate the functionality of two devices by stacks of layers of 2D…

Movement and Quantification of Escherichia coli in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Site

This study quantifies Escherichia coli in water sources in a managed aquifer recharge site and characterizes E. coli movement through clay loam. E. coli is a fecal indicator bacteria found in wastewater. Some strains pose a risk of gastrointestinal illness. The site of focus is the Riparian Preserve in Gilbert, Arizona. E. coli transport from a pond at the site to groundwater is…

Numerical Simulations of Atomic Force Microscopy Trials Observing the Effect of Surface Roughness on Tip Health, and Probe Deformation for Soft Materials with Hard Inclusions

Prior researchers have studied the material properties of varying test specimens using atomic force microscopy. The research literature on these trials has not taken into account the effect of surface roughness on measured values. When the probe tip is in contact with a rough surface the force of the probe tip is split into normal…

Enhancing Multi-Axis Pulsed Plasma Thrusters Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Plasma Arcs

Studying plasma formation allows us to advance knowledge that is essential for the development of pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) technology. This electric propulsion technology can be integrated into CubeSats, providing a cost-effective, self-sufficient, low-power, sustainable long-term solution for deep space exploration missions. PPTs allow CubeSats to have propulsion and multi-axis maneuvering abilities, helping them perform…

Composition and Dynamics of Microbiomes Involved in Chain Elongation Driven Reductive Dehalogenation

Coupling reductive dehalogenation with microbial chain elongation (MCE) has the potential to drive in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethene contamination. MCE substrates, namely ethanol and acetate, can promote complete dehalogenation in soil and groundwater. However, the microbiomes involved in this coupled process are less understood. In this study, microbial community analysis was conducted on groundwater microcosms…

Investigating Microbial Biodegradation of 6PPD and 6PPD-quinone

This experiment seeks to answer the question: Can the environmental contaminants N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (6PPD) and 6PPD-quinone (6PPDQ) be microbially degraded under various environmental conditions? To verify if microbes can utilize the contaminants as a sole carbon source, 6PPD and 6PPDQ were incubated under aerobic conditions with a microbial inoculum derived from wastewater-activated sludge. After verifying microbial…

Daniella Pautz (center), a biomedical engineering graduate student, works with FURI students Maxwell Johnson (right) and Ruhi Dharan (left). Pautz’s research explores how methods of persuasion used by engineering professors can affect students’ performance and well-being.

The Impact of Persuasion Methods on Student Performance and Mental Health in University Setting

With engineering being one of the most difficult and stressful majors, professors need new techniques to keep students motivated, successful, and mentally well. One method that may be useful in teaching is the use of persuasion techniques. There are six persuasion techniques included in the study: reciprocity, coercive authority, expert authority, commitment, liking, and social…

Assessing pH Gradients in Geobacter Biofilms in Order to Optimize Energy Output

In order to draw upon Geobacter’s potential to produce energy and remediate wastewater, a better understanding of the pH limitations, if any, will be assessed. This will be researched by performing cyclic voltammetry at various buffer concentrations.  These pH limitations could result when Geobacter sulfurreducens oxidizes acetate, producing electrons, which could be harvested for electricity,…

Hailey Warner (left), an electrical engineering junior, researches the physics of switching behavior in memristor devices for neuromorphic or “brain-inspired” computing with Assistant Professor Ivan Sanchez Esqueda (right) as part of a semiconductor manufacturing FURI research project sponsored by TSMC.

Exploring the Physics of Resistive-Switching Behavior in Emerging Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D h-BN) Memristors

The two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) memristor is known to “switch” between high to low resistive states through the formation and erasure of conductive filaments between electrodes. Mechanisms behind this filament formation include both metallic diffusion (primarily acting in Ti/h-BN/Au memristors), as well as the forming of boron vacancies (primarily in Au/h-BN/Au memristors) in…

A Quantitative Study on the Effect of Rotation Rate on Radiation Heat Transfer in a Rotary Drum

Rotary drums are used in industries such as cement, pharmaceuticals, and other particulate sectors; thus, research on various parameters will increase operating efficiency and lead to enormous energy savings around the world. The current study focused on the effect of rotation rate on radiation heat transfer inside a rotary drum. The rotation rate was varied…

Design Optimization of a Lizard-Inspired Tube Inspection Robot

The main objective of this research is to take the lizard-inspired pipe inspection robot from the laboratory to the actual field and ensure that it can be operated with minimal to no issues. The areas of improvement in the robot’s design were weight, size, travel speed, and improving the performance of each joint, as well…

Electrical engineering junior Humberto Delgado (foreground) works with Mike Ranjram (background), an assistant professor of electrical engineering, on a FURI project to miniaturize power electronics to make data centers more energy-efficient.

Gate Driver Optimization for a Miniaturized Data Center Power Supply

Data centers are becoming a critical electronic load as our online presence continues to grow. The power supplies used to enable these data centers take up valuable space inside the server racks that comprise them and also burn electrical energy, and this is counter to the objective of maximizing the storage and processing capability of…

Using Smart-Device Metrics to Inform Music Streaming

People use music every day to alter their mood or energy level. The objective of this project is to harness the power of music to intentionally and precisely affect these feelings. This is done by analyzing metrics collected through a person’s phone or smartwatch like heart rate and then selecting the music that best encourages…

Using Machine Learning to Predict Ideal SAC-Surface Composition to Facilitate Electrocatalytic Nitrate Reduction

A possible solution to remove high concentrations of nitrate from water is the nitrate reduction reaction (NO3RR), where nitrate is reduced to either nitrogen or ammonia on an electrode surface. Using a copper electrode with a single-atom catalyst (SAC) can increase the activity and selectivity of the NO3RR. This study explores different combinations of the…

3D Printing of Kirigami Conductors

Kirigami is utilized in the manufacturing industry to improve durability, versatility, and elongation. These kirigami structures are 3D printed with an Ender Pro printer and a conductive filament. The Japanese art form kirigami means “cut” and “paper”, which in this application turns two-dimensional into three-dimensional deformation. The objective of this research is to study the…

Optimal Power Allocation in Cellular Networks Through Machine Learning

Increasing reliance on wireless networks demands a system design that is robust and efficient while minimizing interference between competing transmitters. In this research, we assume multiple transmitters each trying to send a signal to its intended receiver. Optimal power allocation using formulas derived from Information Theory is known to be an NP-hard problem. This work…

Characterizing Anti-Perovskite Films for Solid-State Electrolytes in Batteries

This project was designed to explore the performance of anti-perovskite films as solid-state electrolytes for use in battery cells using a new chemistry. Thin films of this material were created by dissolving low-cost powder precursors and spin-coating the solution onto silicon substrates. The films were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy, fracture testing, profilometry, X-ray…

Open-Air Manufacturing of Robust Perovskite Thin Films Enabled by Food Industry Additive

While silicon modules have become the industry standard for solar energy, perovskite materials hold the potential for making high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells through solution processing of Earth-abundant materials. Interestingly, unmodified perovskite inks suitable for small-scale laboratory production yield poor results when processed with scalable methods like blade coating. This research aims to study the effects…

Curating, Organizing, and Analyzing Neural Signals of Human Speech

With recent developments in the domains of machine learning and neural-signal decoding, this project seeks to explore the possibility of speech identification/recognition through the analysis of neural signals from the speech centers of the human brain. Using a relevant dataset, this project aims at testing the reliability around harboring onto machine-learning-based algorithms for the detection…

Accessible Platform Development using Integrative Technology for Neurodiverse Students

Technology can improve students’ lives when they first enter college, so the goal of this research is to determine what students in the Employment Assistance and Social Engagement (EASE) program at ASU would find beneficial in an application. To do this, the researcher gave a survey to both peer mentees and peer mentors in the…

Investigating the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Motor Training and the Potential Role of Placebo

Noninvasive therapeutic techniques have been desirable in the biomedical community due to their ability to treat diseases or abnormalities in various body systems without causing excessive damage to patients. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), works by manipulating the neuronal membrane threshold, which has been shown to have positive…

Parametric Modeling and Sizing of Small Fixed-Wing UAVs

Obtaining quick and accurate structural and mass property estimates in the early stages of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design is often challenging due to a limited number of tools for projects of this scale. Research was conducted on the feasibility and set-up of parametric models capable of iterating through and analyzing a wide range of…

Convection-Based Calibration Procedure for Thermal Manikin Heat Flux Sensors in Extreme Heat Conditions

The ANDI thermal manikin is an advanced thermal instrument equipped with an internal cooling system and shell-integrated Dynamic Heat Flux Sensors used to analyze the human body’s thermal exposure responses under varying environmental conditions. This research initiative focuses on developing a convection-based calibration procedure for ANDI’s Dynamic Heat Flux Sensors which currently has not been…

Lower Critical Solution Temperatures of PEG-PPG Polyurethanes

Polyurethane polymers are synthetic plastics that are slowly increasing their applications in biological systems such as drug delivery. When polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polypropylene glycol (PPG) are combined, the resulting PEG-PPG polyurethane has shown swelling transitions in response to varying external temperatures. This research focuses on identifying the temperature, known as the lower critical solution…

Effect of CeO2 Pellet Morphology in E-Field Enhanced CO2 Splitting

Thermochemical CO­­2 splitting is a process that can utilize the formation of oxygen vacancies in CeO2 (ceria) at high temperatures (~1,500 ⁰C) to produce CO­. To reduce the operating temperature range, an electronic double layer is used and requires an ionic medium (molten salts) to amplify a low voltage. The ceria in this experiment are…

Optimization and Durability Study of Alkali-Activated Concrete Composed of Blast Furnace Slag, Mine Tailings, and Carpet Fiber

The study aims to optimize and improve the durability of alkali-activated concrete made from waste materials, including blast furnace slag, mine tailings, and carpet fibers. The study explores the use of alkali-activated binders with low CO2 emissions and the addition of different waste materials to improve the properties of concrete. The study identified that PCC fibers can…

App-Based Remote RF Coil Monitoring System in MRI Scanners

The goal is to develop a remote RF power monitoring system that measures the power directly from the MRI RF coil using an Android application-based wireless module for the safety of patients, personnel, and equipment. This system will provide accurate and real-time measurement of the forward and reflected RF power of an RF coil with…

How to Apply Volumetric Capture Technology to Bring Authentic Human Performances into Virtual Worlds by Using Multiple Cameras to Capture the Footage of a Person from Different Viewpoints in More Approachable Ways

This research proposes a methodology to apply volumetric capture technology for bringing authentic human performances into virtual worlds. The study builds on the advantages of existing models, SIMPLify and VIBE, and aims to simplify and optimize them using model pruning techniques. The output models will contain texture and can be opened in game engines. The…

Predicting Public Opinions on Pop Music Using Machine Learning and Audio Features

This project aims to predict the public’s opinion on any given pop music using a machine learning model and the music’s audio features. While other studies have been shown to predict public ratings of pop music, those studies only used the metadata, such as the music’s artist and album. By using audio features instead of…

Manufacturing engineering graduate student Chayaank Bangalore Ravishankar (left) works with Xiangfan Chen (right), an assistant professor of manufacturing engineering, on research into piezoelectric materials for a research project in the MORE program.

3D Printing of Functionalized Piezoelectric Materials for Sensor Applications

Micro Continuous Liquid Interface Production is a type of 3D printing in which photo-polymerization is used for fusion, which solidifies the resin, resulting in strong objects with a smooth surface finish. By the addition of lead zirconate titanate to functionalize the piezoelectric materials, higher piezoelectric charge constant can be achieved, without harming the mechanical flexibility…

Zhengbin Chen (right), a senior engineering major focusing on the robotics concentration, works on an additive manufacturing model with his faculty mentor, Andi Wang, an assistant professor of manufacturing engineering.

Data Analysis and Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

This research aims at conducting a comprehensive data analysis to extract all the useful information for building a practical model and to excavate the relationship of additive manufacturing with powder. With this model, users can input their manufacturing setting to output the estimated probability of satisfying the criteria so as to improve additive manufacturing. For…

Identifying the Physical Identity of an Individual through Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) is a developing field that allows scientists to collect and monitor data about waste from a wide range of sources: ranging from household wastewater to collecting community waste from a local wastewater treatment facility. This data provides important predictions and accurate information in determining concentrations of polioviruses, pathogens, bacteria, and other pathogens…

Expression of Non-Native Inorganic Carbon Transporters in E. coli for Improved Succinate Production

Engineering bacteria provides a sustainable route for the production of succinate, an important platform chemical. The E. coli strain KJ122 can produce up to 80 g/L succinate, but is potentially limited by a lack of native transporters for the active uptake of inorganic carbon, necessary precursors for succinate production. This project explores the use of…

Optimizing the Design of Structural Joints for Use in Composite UAV Structures

With the increasing availability of prefabricated composite spars, there is an opportunity to integrate these products into the structure of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In using these composite spars, engineers must consider how to best create the complicated geometries that are employed in a small UAV’s vehicle design, necessitating the use of composite jointing…

FURI researcher Joy Agus.

Heat Transfer Modeling of Solid-State Fermentation Bioreactors to Produce Medicine in Space Habitats

This project seeks to determine the most optimal design for growing penicillin through solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactors. SSF is a promising method used to grow fungi, which can produce antibiotics like penicillin. Compared to other methods, SSF results in higher yields of penicillin in less time and requires fewer resources — which is ideal in…

The Application of Four Bar Linkages in a Passive Robotic Balancing Mechanism

The objective of this research is to create a system of four bar linkages to produce a passive robotic balancing mechanism. This system can be used to help educate primary school students in basic robotics mechanisms.

Effect of Durability on Multiscale Properties of Interphase and Delamination Using AFM and Novel Facture Toughness Characterization Techniques on Carbon Fiber Samples Under Accelerated Aging Conditions for up to 7 Years

Composites are known for their outstanding wear resistance, excellent mechanical performance-to-weight ratio, and high thermal resistance. However, the performance of a composite depends on several factors including loading stress, fiber orientation, etc. In this project, the effects of accelerated aging conditions, mimicking 60 years of use, on carbon fiber’s durability and delamination is studied through…

Design, Optimization and Control of a Soft Pneumatic Actuator

Soft robotics has seen many exciting applications in human-robot interaction, search and rescue, and even space exploration. Increasing efforts are being made to predict and simulate the behavior of soft pneumatic actuators (SPA), which present a promising solution to drive soft robots. The primary use of a soft bending pneumatic actuator can be observed in…

Robot Intent Signaling Using Augmented Reality

Human-robot collaborations are ubiquitous ranging from assembly lines, autonomous vehicles, medical procedures, etc. In such systems, humans and robots work in shared spaces to accomplish a joint task. Successful implementation of such systems depends on each teammate’s ability to predict the actions of other collaborators. Robot intent signaling in the human-robot collaboration environment would enable…

A Soft Drone for Whole Body Perching

With limitations of the pneumatic bending actuator on slow activation time and limited rigidity for housing motors, we proposed a design modification on the drone arms to include bistable materials along with the fabric-based actuators from our previous design. The bistable material was assembled with the fabric-based actuators using additive manufacturing methods, which also helps…

Engineering a Photosynthetic Microbe for Chemical Production

Through genetic engineering, scientists can manipulate microbial metabolism to maximize the production of a certain chemical. Cyanobacteria have previously been engineered to produce a wide variety of chemicals. That said, current efforts to increase titers in cyanobacteria have not been optimal for industrial use. Slow growth rate and low titers hinder economic feasibility. If one…

Fracture and Toughness Analysis of CNT Network Interphase Properties in DRY Buckypaper Membrane Using Atomic Force Microscopy

The purpose of this research is to understand the macroscale fracture toughness of carbon nanotube network interphase in DRY Buckypaper membrane at the nanoscale level using atomic force microscopy. Obtaining quantitative data on the interphase properties at the nanoscale level and analyzing the effects of the interphase on fracture assists in the development of a…

A Novel Query Efficient Algorithm for Active Covering

This research considers the problem of active covering with the goal of the learner sequentially querying a dataset so that all positive examples have been labeled. The classification of data is an important problem that can be used in many models as predictors, for example, the stock market, health and fitness data, customers’ habits, etc….

FURI researcher Dominic Varda

Engineering Water Disinfection via On-Site Electrochlorination and Electrochlorine Breakpoint

On-site electrochlorination is a promising solution for decentralized water treatment since it is easy to operate and sustains long-term disinfection. This work investigated the impact of electrocatalyst selection on active chlorine generation including Ti/RuO2, Ti/IrO2, and BDD. Operating parameters like current density, chloride concentration and cross velocity were evaluated using an engineered plug-flow electrochemical cell…

Investigating the Strength of Placebo Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Motor Training

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation thought to initiate cortical excitability. While tDCS has been shown to alter motor learning, the extent to which placebo effects, not tDCS treatment effects, are responsible for these benefits is unknown. This study compares how much a motor skill improves with practice during…

Analysis of Previously Published Works Focused Around SLAM to Develop an Autonomous Self-Driving Formula Electric Vehicle

The research is focused around using and modifying previously existing algorithms to allow for the ability to equip a formula electric vehicle with self-driving capabilities. The approach that will be taken is referred to as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). In summary, this approach is aimed at building a map of an unknown environment while…

FURI student Sritharini Radhakrishnan

Characterization of Synaptic Electronic Devices for Brain-Inspired Computing Systems

The project, a continuation from Spring 2022, seeks to answer the research question: Is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered two-dimensional (2D) material, a promising candidate to implement brain-inspired (neuromorphic) computing devices and circuits? Research this semester will extend beyond testing the standalone behavior of individual memristor devices to investigating their collective ability to implement…

Quantification of Shoulder Joint Impedance Based on Various Arm Postures

In this study, we utilize a shoulder exoskeleton robot, which makes use of a 4-bar spherical parallel manipulator (4B-SPM) that has inherently low inertia and as a result can provide fast perturbations. By employing a parallel architecture, the 4B-SPM exoskeleton has the advantage of high acceleration, fast enough to satisfy the speed requirement for the…

Adapting Mass Manufacturing Methods to Develop Living Hinges for Foldable Robotics

Polyethylene binders and folders have a living hinge built into them which can be applied to developing foldable robots. By exploiting this knowledge, the cost of materials and the complexity of manufacturing should go down thereby reducing the barrier of entry into the field of foldable robotics, ideally without compromising the operability and robustness. The…

Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum with Malonate Pathway for Optimizing Flavonoid Production

This project seeks to address the question: What is the effect of expressing a malonate pathway in C. glutamicum strains on naringenin output? Findings suggest the optimal MatC induction with MatB is between 100 µM to 1 mM, and ideal MatC induction with aTc is between 10–50 ng/mL. Furthermore, low product titer and yield suggested…

Kaycee Nienhuis and MORE student Radhika Ganapathy

Mars Data Exploration

The purpose of this research project is to build a data pipeline to process the high-resolution images produced by various cameras (Mastcam-Z, Navcam, Hazcam, etc.) on the Perseverance rover. The format of the image data provided by NASA’s Planetary Data System is not directly usable and is therefore processed in order to be functional and…

Transcriptomic Assays of Immunometabolic Enhancers

Aging-related diseases are primarily metabolic, leading to long-term inflammation, but in drug discovery, immunometabolism remains difficult to assess and often relies on expensive and low throughput methods like mass spectroscopy or transcriptomics. This project will establish real-time fluorescence assays that model and measure neuroinflammatory response to stimuli in human microglial cells. Fluorescence will be induced…

Effect of Depth of Large-Sized Buried Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) Network and Interphase on the Contact Response in AFM Nanoscale Characterization

Understanding of the CNT network interphase will help in facilitating the manufacturing of stronger and tougher composites that are employed in aerospace, space, and defense sectors. Finite Element simulations are used to characterize the nanoscale effect of depth of large-sized CNT network and interphase on contact response in AFM to develop a multiscale understanding of…

Development of an in vitro Model for the Identification of Volatile Biomarkers Differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae infection of Human Lung cells

Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of global mortality affecting 2.49 million people annually due to poor diagnostic measures. One of the bacterial strains contributing to this mortality rate is Streptococcus pneumoniae. To diagnose pneumonia, clinicians are required to culture sputum for weeks limiting the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. In recent years, volatile organic…

Engineering Bacteria to Depolymerize PET Plastics to Combat Pollution

Accumulation of plastic waste in oceans and landfills increasingly threatens life due to fragmentation into microplastics. Annually, it is estimated 359 million tons of plastic are produced, 150-200 million tons of which accrues in landfills and contain a substantial portion of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Plasmid constructs have been developed for the expression of PET-hydrolyzing enzymes….

Neural Networks Implementation on Embedded Devices

For this project, the goal is to understand the constraints of deploying a neural network model onto an embedded system. The idea is to train a model and deploy it to an embedded device in order to see how memory is allocated and how much information can be stored. Currently, the team has created a…

Metrics Validation for Automated Vehicle Operational Safety

One of the biggest questions facing the safe deployment and commercialization of automated driving system (ADS)-equipped vehicles (AVs) today is, “What level of operational safety performance is required compared to that of a human-driven vehicle (HDV)?” To answer this question, a methodology to quantitatively measure and contrast the operational safety performance of AVs and HDVs…

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Specific to the Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer by Cisplatin and Etoposide

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, claiming 1.59 million lives annually. Numerous efforts have been made to reduce mortality, however, 33% of small cell lung cancer patients still experience a relapse within the first two years. This challenge is driven by limitations in diagnostics, which are unable to accurately evaluate the…

Weibull Analysis of CNT Network Interphase Thickness in 2D Buckypaper Membrane

The researcher will manufacture a carbon nanotube (CNT) network in a 2D buckypaper membrane. The researcher will use Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM) to measure the interphase thickness between the CNT network and the epoxy resin. Weibull model will be used for a statistical analysis of the interphase thickness.

Assessment of Mode I/II Fracture Technique (NASA) and Novel Fracture Technique at ASU

Polymer matrix composite performance weaknesses are largely caused by delamination, which is a mode failure originating from a combination of normal and shear stresses, or Mode I and Mode II, respectively. In the past, researchers introduced a mixed-mode bending (MMB) fixture to identify combined Mode I and Mode II fractures. Recently, Arizona State University researchers…

Studying the Stress Strain Properties of Auxetic Structures

In the past few decades, a new kind of structure made out of certain patterns was discovered that was porous and presented a negative Poisson’s ratio. Because of this unique property, these Auxetic patterns have the potential to be stronger than their patternless counterparts while using less material, an important aspect in aerospace applications. During…

VivyNet: A New Approach to Creating AI-Generated Music

This FURI semester, this project focuses on experimenting with the concatenation of pre-trained encoder and decoder checkpoints to quickly perform task-specific tasks. Our research has uncovered possible ways that can translate text into poems. This research provides an entryway into further research that can solve task-specific problems that involve mapping data from one type to…

3D Printing of Kirigami Conductors

Kirigami is utilized in the manufacturing industry to improve durability, versatility, and elongation. These kirigami structures are 3D printed with an Ender Pro printer and a conductive filament. The Japanese art form “kirigami” means “cut” and “paper,” which in this application turns two dimensions into three-dimensional deformation. The objective of this research is to study…

Passive Exoskeleton for Sit-To-Stand and Stand-To-Sit Transfer

Imagine the possibility of a cure for one of the most prevalent problems associated with aging. Numerous individuals experience difficulty getting out of bed, sitting, or performing normal tasks due to weak knees. This issue also affects manual laborers who may be compelled to change careers or retire as a result of the strenuous repetitive…

Manthan Chelenahalli Satish

Vehicle Speed Estimation from 3D Object Detection for Surveillance Cameras

One of the key components of an intelligent transportation system is the ability to detect and track vehicles from traffic surveillance cameras. This research project showcases a monocular 3D object detection system that is trained on a custom dataset, KITTI-Carla, which comprises synthetic 3D data collected from the view of a traffic camera from the…

Investigating Data Collection and Aggregation for Improving Collective Intelligence

Research suggests that harnessing the wisdom of crowds is a valuable endeavor to reach a more comprehensive understanding of situations and improve decision-making. That is, intelligently aggregating the estimations or predictions of multiple individuals, the collective value can be more accurate than the information provided by any single individual. However, the cost of acquiring the…

Design and Implementation of Non-Overshooting MPC with Terminal Cost/Constraints for Vehicle Lateral Stability Control

An effective method to guarantee vehicle safety is to design a vehicle driving safety algorithm that limits its states within a predefined stability region without passing the boundaries. A non-overshooting model of predictive control is implemented to achieve that. The stability and feasibility are further ensured by the addition of terminal cost and terminal constraints….

Movement and Quantification of E. coli in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Site

This study quantifies Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water sources in a managed aquifer recharge site and characterizes its movement through clay loam. E. coli is a typical fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater, and certain strains pose a risk of gastrointestinal illness. This study was conducted at Riparian Preserve in Gilbert, Arizona, where there is a risk of groundwater…

Carbon/Carbon Composites: Manufacturing, Structures and Property Relationships

A limitation in the aerospace industry is the lack of lightweight materials that can withstand high temperatures without losing their mechanical robustness for applications in supersonic/hypersonic flights. The current generation of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic and titanium alloys fail to sustain their properties at elevated temperatures. Carbon-carbon (C-C) composites have been studied for nearly four decades,…

FURI researcher Micayla Corker.

Recyclable Thiol-ene Polymers via Thiol-Disulfide Exchange Reaction

The basis of this project is a reprocessable photopolymer made up of a UV-induced thiol-ene network. The introduction of a tetra functional thiol into the structure, pentaerythritol tetrakis (PETMP), improves the mechanical and thermal properties of this network while also maintaining the disulfide backbone, which allows for reprocessing. These properties are evaluated using tensile testing,…

Investigation of Chemically Recyclable Thiol-ene Crosslinked Photopolymers

Traditional hydrocarbon-based plastics are unable to be chemically recycled. The purpose of this research is to develop similar materials that do not pose the same environmental hazard as conventional plastics. Photo-induced crosslinked materials may be produced via the reaction of multifunctional enes with thiol-terminal oligomers containing a dynamic disulfide backbone (thioplast). These networks may then…

Contact-Based Navigation and SLAM Using Collision-Resilient UAVs

This research intends to develop a novel navigation algorithm for Collision-Resilient Quadcopters (CRQ), which are quadcopters that can take collisions and still maintain stable flight. This algorithm will enable the quadcopter to navigate when there is zero knowledge of the environment. It is almost the equivalent of a person who is blind navigating through a…

Urban Climate Data Visualization and Exploration Tool

This project aims to develop a user-friendly, open-source, web-based visualization and exploration interface in WebGL to map and analyze urban climate data. The tool will allow users to freely explore datasets relevant to cities’ urban form and function at fine spatial scales and combine (or join and mask) ancillary datasets without downloading data or installing…

Vat Photopolymerization of Smart Meta-Structures with Highly Removable and Recyclable Supportable Polymers

Vat photopolymerization technology can print three-dimensional objects with high precision and fast speed. For interlocked structures, a significant amount of additional support is required in order to ensure the overhanging and free-hanging features can be fabricated. However, internal supports cannot be directly removed, and it is time-consuming to manually remove supports. In addition, unexpected damage…

An Integrative Personalized Wearable Indirect Calorimeter

A personal indirect calorimeter allows everyone to assess energy expenditure (metabolic rate or metabolism (kcal/day)) through breath analysis, thus enabling accurate determination of a person’s total caloric intake needs for weight management and fitness. In addition, ketones are markers of fat oxidation, and can also be measured through breath. The aim of this project is…

Electrically Assisted Vat Photopolymerization of Bioinspired Hierarchical Structures with Hydrophobicity Enhancement

Air-retaining is attracting increasing attention for various applications. Salvinia exhibit stable and long-term air retention because of the unique combination of smooth hydrophilic patches on elastic eggbeater structures decorated with nanoscopic wax crystals. However, reproducing such hierarchical structures with controllable surface roughness is challenging for current fabrication approaches, which hinders the applications of such air-retaining…

Assistant Professor Ayan Mallik and FURI researcher Saif Elsaady.

Cybersecurity of Onboard Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles

Throughout this independent and thesis-based research, the ramifications of software attacks on electronic hardware in an electric vehicle (EV) are thoroughly investigated in an effort to present the appropriate guidance for defending against cyberattacks. The research team analyzes a miniature model of an EV and analyzes its software to help better understand the dynamics of…

Nonisothermal Melt Crystallization Behavior of Semicrystalline Polymers Monitored Using an In Situ Fluorescence Technique

The melt crystallization of semicrystalline thermoplastics is a physical process that dictates the key characteristics of the resulting materials. In this study, a fluorescence technique was developed to monitor the melt crystallization of the thermoplastic, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA). PLLA was fluorescently labeled with a fluorophore, CN4OH, which is sensitive to the degree of crystallinity…

Dual-Component Structure for Selective Pollutant Decomposition via Photocatalysis

As the population increases, there will inevitably be a greater generation of waste, which necessitates the long-term need for waste treatment. A consequence of waste treatment facilities is the production of highly toxic gases. The purpose of this research is to develop a dual-component structure that will decompose select pollutants into value-added products while minimizing…

Impact of Human Body Shape on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

People are exposed to a variety of thermal environments every day. Understanding and predicting an individual’s heat stress and strain potential in various thermal environments is crucial. Previous human thermal exposure studies have accounted only for average caucasian humans. However, the fact that every human has a unique body shape leaves behind a limited understanding…

Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum with Malonate Pathway for Optimizing Flavonoid Production

This project seeks to address the question: What is the effect of expressing a malonate pathway in C. glutamicum strains on naringenin output? It is hypothesized that overexpressing the MatB synthase and MatC protein transporter will cause an increase in malonyl-coA pools (a precursor for naringenin synthesis), ultimately increasing the naringenin output. Naringenin can be…

Testing the Effect of Water Temperature and Disinfectants on Biofilm Formation by Different Bacteria in Different Pipe Materials

With the increase in world population, waterborne diseases are also increasing. Drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) biofilms can harbor pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella spp. and E. coli potentially release them back into the water, resulting in human exposure. In addition, water quality conditions can affect water pipes and water mains due to…

Removal of Acetaminophen from Water Using Electrochemical Analysis

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are exposed to the environment during their use, manufacturing, and disposal. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), APIs have proven to be detrimental to human health. Thus, API degradation is required to warrant water quality. In-situ chemical oxidation technology has been presented as an alternative for API treatment, these technologies…

Use of Octopus Arm Muscle for Bioinspired Soft Robotic Arm

The purpose of the octopus project research at the BIRTH Lab is to determine the functionality of each muscle layer in an octopus. Electromyography (EMG) signals are quantitatively analyzed for complex motions of the electrically stimulated arm. This opens possibilities for engineering a bio-inspired soft robotic arm. The research team is currently running experiments in which…

Driving Safety Performance Assessment Metrics for ADS-Equipped Vehicles and Scenarios Testing

One of the biggest questions facing the safe deployment and commercialization of automated driving systems (ADS)-equipped vehicles ​(AVs) today is “What level of driving safety performance is required compared to that of a human-driven vehicle?” A methodology to systematically compare and evaluate the driving safety performance of AVs and human-driven vehicles is needed to provide…

Vat Photopolymerization of Smart Meta-Structures with Highly Removable and Recyclable Supportable Polymers

Current vat photopolymerization (VPP) technology can print three-dimensional (3D) objects with high precision and fast speed. For complex computer-aided design (CAD) mega-structures, a significant amount of additional support structures are required in order to ensure the overhanging and free-hanging features can be fabricated. However, internal support structures cannot be directly removed, and it is time-consuming…

Assessment of Mode I/II Fracture Technique (NASA) and Novel Fracture Technique at ASU

Polymer matrix composite performance weaknesses are largely caused by delamination, which is a mode failure originating from a combination of normal and shear stresses, or Mode I and Mode II, respectively. In the past, researchers introduced a mixed-mode bending (MMB) fixture to identify combined Mode I and Mode II fractures. Recently, Arizona State University researchers…

Micropatterning of Nanoparticles via Multi-Phase Direct Ink Writing (MDIW)

3D printing is an advanced manufacturing strategy for nanocomposite manufacturing due to rapid prototyping, limited material wastage, high processing speed, and customization. This study demonstrated the design and development of a new additive manufacturing mechanism, Multiphase Direct Ink Writing (MDIW). By matching the viscosity between polymer solutions/nanoparticle suspensions (Boron nitride Epoxy and Polyethylenimine PEI), an…

Development of In-Line Inspection (ILI) Robot for Pipeline Using Structural Health Monitoring Using Computer Vision and Deep Learning Techniques

Through this study, a novel in-line inspection robot for the detection of defects in gas pipelines is proposed, which would help in automating the structural health monitoring process. With the help of sensor fusion techniques, it is expected that the uncertainty in the pose estimate of the robot reduces, which would facilitate 3D reconstruction of…

Automated Magnetic Core Loss Tester

Core loss characteristics in magnetic materials play a critical role in the design of power electronic converters. Manufacturer-provided data on core loss characteristics are often collected over a limited operating range and for an unspecified core shape. Having the ability to directly test magnetic materials is extremely beneficial to the power electronics designer in producing…

Engineering Electrified Water Disinfection via On-Site Electrochlorination

On-site electrochlorination appears as a promising solution since it produces long-lasting disinfecting species and does not require complex operation. This work investigates the impact of electrocatalyst selection on chlorine electrogeneration. Engineering figures of merit based on electrical energy requirement and productivity have been used to assess the most competitive electrode material among Ti/RuO2, Ti/IrO2, and…

Effect of Durability on Multiscale Properties of Interphase and Delamination Using AFM and Novel Facture Toughness Characterization Techniques on Carbon Fiber Samples Under Accelerated Aging Conditions for up to 7 Years

Composites are known for their outstanding wear resistance, excellent mechanical performance-to-weight ratio, and high thermal resistance. However, the performance of a composite depends on several factors including loading stress and temperature. In this project, the effects of accelerated aging conditions mimicking 60 years of use on carbon fiber’s durability and delamination are studied through reading…

Correlations Between Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus, Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Neural Activity

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a method of neuromodulation in which implanted electrodes produce electrical impulses for the treatment of neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease (PD), epilepsy, and dystonia. DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the method of interest for this research due to its success in human subjects. Although the efficacy of DBS…

Engineering of a Microbe for the Sustainable Production of Environmentally Friendly Solvents

Due to the growing concerns of petroleum and its negative effects, alternative solvents like ethyl lactate are sought out to replace common petroleum-based solvents. Ethyl lactate, a naturally biodegradable ethyl ester of lactic acid, is a common solvent used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and food production. To provide a sustainable method of production of ethyl lactate,…

Low Power Intrusion Detection By Measuring Electric Field Disturbances

Currently, many intrusion detection systems employ infrared detection as a means of detecting intrusive behaviors in a certain area. While effective in a controlled environment, the main flaws of these systems come from being easily triggerable due to changes in light as well as consuming high amounts of power in order to operate. This project…

RNA’s Higher Order Structure and Its Effect on Stability and Function for Medical Application

Research in this study investigates whether the structural motif Degradation Tuning Ribonucleic Acid (dt-RNA) enhances the function of aptamers for COVID-19 testing kits and increases the stability of mi-RNA. This research shows that aptamers attached to dt-RNA retain function, and mi-RNAs that are connected show an increase in stability. This makes dt-RNA an attractive motif…

A Causal Approach to Predicting Medical Conditions in Machine Learning

A causal approach to machine learning is currently being investigated to better explain, understand, and apply machine learning models. The focus of this study is to use this causal approach to introspect on machine learning performance in the medical domain so that we can better understand the conditions under which medical machine learning models will…

Short and Aligned Fiber Filament for 3D-Printed, High-Performance Composites

Oriented-fiber reinforced composites had played a major role in the application of high-performance materials and the demand for them is growing. But there are still challenges in designing a method for uniform short, oriented fiber reinforcement in composites. This research will focus on leveraging additive manufacturing potential in terms of speed and precision to produce…

Optimization of PEG-Polyurethane Polymers for Biomedical Applications

Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-Polyurethane polymers are currently being used in tissue regeneration scaffolds, heart valves, and wound healing applications. Targeting specific PEG-Polyurethane properties can address the clinical needs mentioned above. The focus of this research is to analyze the molecular structure, the molecular weight (MW), and the accelerated swelling and degradation of the polymer to…

Exploratory Data and Root Cause Analysis for Semiconductor Testing

The aim of this research is to analyze the data from electrical tests performed on the components of transistors at the Flexible Electronics and Display Center of ASU. The purpose of the analysis is to discover the patterns of variability from the data, associate them with the assorted quality issues and measurement errors, and propose…

Open-Source Cost-Effective 3D-Printed Anthropomorphic Neuroprosthetics

An anthropomorphic neuroprosthetics arm is a bionic arm that will help people replicate much of the function of a native human arm. Artificial limbs are essential to improve the quality of life of people living without limbs. Bionic limbs such as bone-anchored prostheses use implants directly inserted into the living bone for more stability. Limb…

Creative Frameworks: Leveraging Deep Learning and Data Analysis to Create Accessible Artistic Technologies

Generative adversarial networks are used to create visuals from textual inputs, allowing a user to create artwork with only a keyboard. GANs can be extended by recycling the output image as a seed for another generation, allowing the creation of dynamic videos. Using this technology, individuals can create a video by simply entering a list…

Multiphase 3D Printing with Shape Memory Property for Untethered Actuation

Nanocomposite polymers are a class of materials known for their customizability and vast applicability in the additive manufacturing industry. Shape Memory Actuators (SMAs) are a nanocomposite subset that has become a prime research interest in industrial, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This is because SMAs have a much greater propensity to return to their original…

Creative Frameworks: Leveraging Deep Learning and Data Analysis to Create Accessible Artistic Technologies

Auditory analysis based on musical information and text lyrics, and flexible light controls through mediums such as keyboard input or motion capture can be used as input to an end-to-end program that generates light shows and visuals, enabling creative expression. Researchers have developed programs that pull information from songs and record user input to automatically…

Fine-Tuning Pre-Trained Models to Determine Model Superiority for Enhanced Medical Image Diagnosis

The biggest challenge in computer-aided diagnosis remains the slow nature of the data annotation process. No large-scale evaluation has performed a comparison on the many pre-trained models in existence. In this project, selected pre-trained models are benchmarked to compare, evaluate and determine their superiority in medical image disease detection. The potential of this research project…

Secure Tracing With Dendrite Vision: Computer Vision Methods For Matching Dendritic Identifiers Within The Supply Chain

Dendrites are fascinating branching structures that exhibit randomness, yet they are unique, non-repeatable, and identifiable with the right algorithmic innovations. The question this research aims to answer is how can machine learning and these naturally random structures be brought together to create a highly accurate, secure, and specific identifier? In order to create a model…

Geochemically Inspired Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica

This project seeks to synthesize mesoporous silica by using the abundant mineral forsterite as a silica source. It was found that mesoporous silica can be synthesized from forsterite, with the optimal conditions being 70 °C and -0.2 pH for 24 hours, which yielded a specific surface area of 735 m2/g and a total pore volume…

Movement and Quantification of E. coli in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Site

This study quantifies Escherichia coli in water sources in a managed aquifer recharge site and characterizes E. coli movement through clay loam. E. coli is a fecal indicator bacteria found in wastewater. Some strains pose a risk of gastrointestinal illness. The site of focus is the Riparian Preserve in Gilbert, Arizona. E. coli transport from…

Assaying the Effect of Knock-Down of Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive cancer that resides in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. The median survival rate for MPM remains poor even with existing treatment procedures. Ubiquitination is one biological process known to influence protein and cell function. This research project examines cell proliferation and cell apoptosis in MPM…

Chemotherapeutic Drug-Conjugated Microbead Technology for Selective Binding with Methylated and Unmethylated Small DNA in the Application of Disease Detection and Biomanufacturing

In a previous study, it was discovered that aminoglycoside-derived cationic polymer microbeads (also called Amikabeads) have significant binding affinity toward negatively charged plasmid DNA due to coulombic interactions. The purpose of this study is to develop a small library of modified Amikabeads with a variety of DNA-intercalating chemotherapeutic drug molecules to modulate the ability of…

Analyzing Parameters Optimum for a Highly Sensitive Analyte Sensor in a Point of Care Medical Device

Existing analyte measurement techniques are error-prone, time-consuming, and expensive. Hence, a handheld medical device capable of accurately measuring the amount of analyte (as low as 10 micromolar) in the blood is a long-desired requirement of doctors. Determining optimum parameters to get high sensitivity in sensors is required. This project is aimed at analyzing the effect…

Elucidating the Role of Ultraviolet Weathering and Biofilm Formation on the Adsorption of Micropollutants onto Microplastics

When released into the environment, plastics undergo mechanical abrasion and ultraviolet (UV) exposure that leads to the formation of microplastics. These microplastics, when present as a mixture with other contaminants, may interact with each other, thus, exhibiting high toxicity. Such interactions may be altered due to UV aging and biological surface weathering of these microplastics,…

FURI researcher Susanna Westersund.

Treated Waste Plastics: A Solution for Enhancing the Performance of Concrete Construction

The environment today is facing concerns about the over-accumulation of plastics in landfills as well as excessive CO2 emissions. Containers and packaging take up approximately 15 million tons each year, and accumulations such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch are entering the oceans. Work has been done to alter and treat polyethylene plastic to be…

Using Kinematic Analysis to Identify Loci of Improvement During Functional Motor Skill Training

Improvement in the efficiency, accuracy, and timeliness of a functional motor task likely correlates to an improvement in related motions of daily life (Winstein and Stewart, 2006). The functional motor task performed in this study mimics the daily living activity of feeding oneself, such that in the task, participants scoop two beans from a “home”…

Using Batched Rays to Enable Higher Resolution Reconstruction of Computed Tomography Images

In our work, we tried to enable the reconstruction of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images using implicit neural networks which usually require access to large amounts of graphics processing unit (GPU) memory. We propose a new ray-sampling technique that enables high-resolution reconstruction using INRs. Our approach uses a random batch of rays in each training…

Variable Stiffness as Control Scheme for Enhancing Active Ankle Foot Orthosis

During walking, the human ankle accommodates for surface irregularities during the stance phase by changing its mechanical impedance to a stiffness dominant joint. To prevent discomfort to an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) device user, it is crucial for AFO controllers to closely follow foot trajectory while constantly changing stiffness properties. This study aims to compare the…

Analysis of Additively Manufactured Sintered Wicks for Use in Developing Heat Pipes

The development of additively manufactured sintered wicks and heat pipes will allow for the design and creation of integrated heat sinks and pipes in designs not possible through standard manufacturing processes currently relied upon. It is also possible to explore designs of more efficient thermal dissipation designs, such as those seen in nature. This work…

Object Detection and Tracking for a Pursuit-Evasion Scenarios

Counter-UAV systems are growing popular day by day. As the rise of drones has its benefits, but also raises the risks of potential threats when handled in unlawful activities or involved in causing harm to the citizens. Real-time, recurrent, regression-based tracking, a fast yet accurate network for generic object tracking, was developed for drones to…

Quantifying the Trends in Wind Speed and Wind Power Potential in Arizona

The task of analyzing long-term wind speed trends across Arizona initially began with sorting data to show what the long-term wind speed trends across Arizona are. Through collection and analysis of the AZMET wind speed data, it was found that the wind speeds tended to decline with respect to time. Using daily wind speed data,…

Viability of Magnets and Robotics on Advanced Surgeries

This project aims to utilize magnets and a robot capable of great precision in order to determine new techniques that will improve the efficacy of minimally invasive surgeries. Through sensory detectors capable of gauging tension force and deviation angle, the research team is able to guide a needle throughout various tissues and pathways inside the…

Effect of Bimodal Sensory Integration on Reactionary Impulsivity

This research investigates the utilization of neural summation resulting from multisensory integration during action inhibition. Combining the race model inequality, which implies neural summation from bimodal stimuli, with the stop signal (SS) tasks, which infers inhibition performance, allows an investigation of psychophysics integrating to cognitive processes. At present, the experimental design is finalized and the…

Researching Reusable Water Bottle Cleaning Techniques to Provide Sustainable and Safe Access to Clean Water for the Homeless Population in the Phoenix Area

The GCSP Clean Water Research Team seeks to find a sustainable solution to water accessibility for the homeless population of Phoenix while also preventing the spread of COVID-19. The portion of the project completed by this researcher was to use the engineering process to explore and find a cleaning process/mechanism that fits the necessary criteria…

Financial, Logistical, and Environmental Analysis of Reusable Water Bottle Filling and Cleaning Device for the Homeless Population in Phoenix

The research project analyzed the financial viability of a proposed drinking water filling and bottle cleaning station. A mathematical model was developed to compare costs of the proposed solution under varying criteria to water bottle drives by organizations like Valley of the Sun United Way. The model also compared Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions using EPA…

Autonomous Driving World Map Auto-Generation for CARLA Simulator Using OpenStreetMap

Nowadays, Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS) is a fast-growing field of research. High-fidelity simulation environments ease the assessment of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in different safety-critical domains. However, the currently available simulation environments suffer from the lack of diverse simulation scenarios, in particular, map scenarios. To address this issue, the simulator map auto-generation method provides an extensive…

Lesion Detection using Three-Dimensional CBCT Image Segmentation using Deep Learning

The goal of this project is to implement an efficient and accurate 3D semantic segmentation on Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) dental imaging for accurate lesion detection using a 3D U-Net method. Applying this technology in diagnostic medical imaging can lead to early detection of various types of lesions, which is vital for medical diagnosis. In…

Designing an Automated Soldering Station to Solder Copper-Ribbons onto PV Cells

Soldering tin-coated copper ribbons (300 µm round) on photovoltaic cells (~200 microns thick) requires precise control of temperature, soldering speed, and the applied force. Additionally, the tabbing needs to be soldered to a specific part of cell metallization. When done by hand, it can take up to 40 minutes and human error can lead to…

Characterizing CO₂ Utilization Rates Across Different Cyanobacteria Strains under Varying Light Intensities by a Novel Mass Balance Approach

Cyanobacteria and its complex photosynthetic systems have been a prime target for synthetic biologists and their molecular engineering tools for the last couple of decades. However, characterizing meaningful CO2 removal performance has always been a struggle within the field. Measuring these changes in gas concentration within a dynamic system can be accomplished with a simple…

Efficient Adsorption of the Macronutrients with the Help of Graphene and Oxidized Derivatives

The project will be dealing with three different types of Graphene and its oxidized nanomaterials, namely Graphene (Gr), Graphene Oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO), under different loading conditions of the nutrients namely, Nitrogen (N), Potassium (K) and Phosphorus (P), sometimes referred as the “big 3” in the commercial nano fertilizers for their importance….

Development of Biomimetic Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient CRISPR Delivery

Recent advances in genome engineering, namely Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 gene editing, have revolutionized biomedical research and hold promise for treating genetic disorders. However, inefficient delivery and potential off-target effects remain the major obstacles, limiting clinical applications of gene editing. The objective of this MORE project is to develop novel cell membrane-cloaked…

Decentralized Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

With the rise of big data, Distributed Computing methods have become the backbone of large systems. Contextualizing problems in a multiagent paradigm enables one to capitalize on the high scalability of such distributed methods. Currently, such multiagent problems are often solved (sub-)optimally using Multiagent Reinforcement Learning (MARL), which relies on a centralized server to perform…

Characterizing Postural Stability During Smartphone Use on Dynamically Unstable Environments

Past studies have shown negative effects of smartphone usage on standing postural balance, but mostly focused on traditional tasks like calling or texting. As part of modern life, smartphones are now also utilized for taking selfie photos or posting statuses on social media. However, little is known about how this modern usage impacts balance. Moreover,…

Improving Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

One of the most promising technologies for creating power without emissions is Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) because it uses oxygen and hydrogen to create electricity with the only byproduct being water. To figure out the optimal design of the fuel cell, a literature review was conducted to determine the effects of adding both internal…

Design of Mixed-Signal Circuit Board for RRAM (Resistive Random-Access Memory) Crossbar Testing

Memristors are newly utilized devices that hold variable resistances based on input voltages. This unique characteristic allows for a faster, more power-efficient implementation of the dot-product computation compared to traditional digital circuits. Placing these memristors in a crossbar array, dot-products of multiple vectors can be computed, creating an improved methodology for one of the most…

Using 3D Printing to Develop a Placenta-on-a-Chip Model

Placental trophoblasts support fetal growth and survival, but the behavior of these cells is challenging to study in vivo and in two-dimensional culture systems. In this project, we investigate the use of 3D printing to generate an on-a-chip platform to study trophoblast behavior. We evaluated the feasibility of printing the chips on glass slides and…

Improvement of the MaRTiny: A Low-Cost Thermal Sensing Device

Future trends of climate change coupled with urban population growth indicate the need for reducing human exposure to extreme weather and heat. Extreme heat strains human health and people’s ability to work, travel, and enjoy time outdoors. This project develops a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) device called MaRTiny that collects meteorological data and concurrently…

Detecting and Analyzing Physical Movements Using Machine Learning

The hardware detects the movement of the user and utilizes a neural network to recognize correct movement patterns. Previous research used data imported from infrared scanners in order to build a model. This research project builds a model by tracking the movements of the participants using acceleration and gyroscope sensors. Using machine learning as an…

Optimal Task-Allocation Algorithms for Multi-Tethered (MuTheR) Robots: Traditional Versus Timing Formulation

This project compared two optimization-based formulations for solving multi-robot task allocation problems with tether constraints. The first method used the common multiple traveling salesman formulation and implemented an algorithm over the formulation to filter out solutions that failed to satisfy the tether constraint, while a new formulation — the Timing Formulation — was designed to…

Investigation of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration Unit

Solar adsorption refrigeration functions through alternating cycles of adsorption and desorption to achieve the cooling effect required. Unlike vapor-compression refrigerators which utilize electricity to function, this one primarily uses solar thermal energy. The system consists of a zeolite adsorbent and uses water as the refrigerant. These are contained within an evacuated glass tube. This project…

Characterization of Adhesive Peptide Binding Efficacy in SPAAC and Michael-Type Addition PEG Hydrogels to Support Encapsulated Pancreatic Islet Cell Viability

A promising treatment for Type 1 diabetes is encapsulation of pancreatic islet cells in hydrogels, which may prevent transplant issues, like immune rejection. These hydrogels can be modified to promote passive nutrient diffusion and prevent hypoxia via injection molding that produces geometries with reduced diameters. Polyethyleneglycol-maleimide (PEG-MAL) is a common macromer used to encapsulate islet…

Biomedical engineering graduate student Emmanuella Tagoe works with Professor Marco Santello.

Investigating How Training Improves Dexterous Finger Force Control

Many activities of daily living like buttoning shirts or threading a needle require dexterous control of appropriate forces (or movement) of individual fingers. However, intending to move one finger is usually accompanied by movement of other unintended fingers, making it challenging to perform these tasks. This phenomenon is known as Finger Force Enslaving and is…

Using Machine Learned Forces and Energies to Improve Quantum Mechanical Simulations

Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been used for decades to predict the chemical properties of compounds and materials. While DFT calculations are highly chemically accurate, they are computationally costly to perform for systems containing many atoms. On the other hand, classical mechanics-based molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be performed at a larger scale and…

Professor Pedro Peralta and aerospace engineering major Jake Trenter

Optimization of Compression Cell Geometry to Maximize Pressure Generation in Elastomers During Total Scattering Experiments via Finite Elements

Polyurea is an elastomer that has shown unique properties under large compressive stresses indicating that it may be a promising armor coating material. High-pressure testing at a synchrotron will utilize x-ray scattering to observe how the polyurea responds to large compressive stresses at the atomic level. For these tests, a high-pressure cell containing the sample…

Voice Command Object Localization with Spatial Audio and IoT Devices

Delivering spatial audio through speakers, rather than headphones that deliver audio directly to the ears, produces the issue of crosstalk, where sounds from each of the two speakers reach the opposite ear, inhibiting the spatialized effect. This research team has developed an algorithm called Xblock that solves this issue using a crosstalk cancellation technique. This…

Radiative Sky Cooling from Visibly Transparent High-Emissivity Glass Window

While natural light is desired for buildings, unwanted heat is simultaneously gained through windows, which burdens the building energy consumption for cooling, in particular, during the hot summer in Phoenix. This project studies the radiative sky cooling effect of a visibly-transparent high-emissivity glass window in a combination of outdoor testing and heat transfer analysis. The…

Filtering MRI Images to Improve Pharmacokinetic Modeling of GdDO3NI in Brain Tumors

Pharmacokinetics involves the study of the movement of exogenous chemicals such as drugs and imaging agents through the body. Modeling the passage of a hypoxia targeting imaging agent using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) would allow for the identification of tumors, as well as the characterization of their hypoxic and normoxic regions. Fermi filters were designed…

Enhanced Collaboration Through Group-Based Virtual Reality Experiences

This framework aims to enhance productivity and education in multi-user virtual reality. A classroom setting is used to show how education can be impacted, such as when an instructor splits the class into groups to solve tasks together. Different tools have been created to facilitate collaboration, including three-dimensional drawing, model spawning, and expressive avatars. User…

Characterization of Synaptic Electronic Devices for Brain-Inspired Computing Systems

The project seeks to address the research question: Is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered two-dimensional (2D) material, a promising candidate to implement brain-inspired (neuromorphic) computing devices and circuits? To answer this question, comprehensive electrical measurements and statistical analysis of h-BN memristor (i.e., an electrical device with programmable resistance) will be conducted and analyzed using…

Graph-Guided Assembly and Typing of the HLA Alleles from RNA-seq Data

Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) are encoded by a polymorphic set of genes where even a single base change can impact the function of the body’s immune response to foreign antigens (Gao, 2001). Although many methods exist to type these alleles using whole-genome sequencing, few can use the more popular RNA sequencing with its inconsistency in…

Analyzing the Features and Efficacy of Classification Models for Physiological Stress Prediction

Stress prediction in law enforcement can serve to better prepare officers for the intensity of their work. To further understand the physiological triggers that induce stress, the use of machine learning can determine the patterns in which stress is likely to occur. However, current models should be improved upon to provide more accurate results. This…

Fatigue Analysis of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V for Biomedical Applications: Permanent Bone Screws

Additively manufactured (AM) materials are being used increasingly in many industries, specifically the health sector. AM materials are highly advantageous as they can be quickly produced and are custom-created to exactly fit the application. In this research, the fatigue life of AM Ti-6Al-4V is studied and compared to the fatigue life of standard produced Ti-6Al-4V….

Further Calibration and Reconfiguration of Single-Stage Gas Gun for Impact Studies

In this study, features of a single-stage gas gun at the Adaptive Intelligent Materials & Systems Center are reconfigured to achieve the optimum performance of the system with consistent results. These features include a new barrel and chronograph. Impact/dynamic tests are conducted using a wide range of applied gas pressure and projectiles with varying shapes…

Assessment of Quali and Takayanagi Models for Evaluation of 2D Membrane Mechanical Properties

This project aims to quantitatively assess the modulus of elasticity of carbon fiber nanotube 2D membranes using Quali and Takayanagi mathematical models and comparing the mechanical properties calculated using those models to mechanical properties collected from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to determine the accuracy and viability. The ability to calculate the modulus of…

3D Printing Ultra-High-Performance Concrete

The research team developed an Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) blend that retained significant mechanical strength for 3D printing applications. The blend consists of type II/V Portland cement and fly ash, limestone, and slag as cementitious replacement material. Fibers were added to the mixture for tensile reinforcement, but were limited by the capacity of the auger to…

Development of URCHIN: An Autonomous Multi-Agent Framework for Extraterrestrial Exploration and Geological Sample Collection

Current surface exploration swarm vehicle concepts have been designed to navigate the environment specific to their proposed mission destination, resulting in a design that is too dependent on its use-case to be deployed to alternative planetary body types without the need for major structural changes. The objective of this research is to analyze the performance…

Modeling Deviation in Bending Direction of a Soft Arm Manipulator Using Regressive Neural Networks

The compliant nature of a soft robot’s material and design offers certain challenges when it comes to modeling and control. The lack of rigid structures allows the system to bend along its entire length and in any direction instead of at specific joints, like in a rigid robot. Moreover, the actuation, generally pressure controlled, does…

3D-Printed Electroactive Hydrogel-Based Microgripper for Biomedical Applications

Hydrogels are 3D interconnected systems of polymer chains that can soak and store liquid, this characteristic makes them supple and soft. Electroactive hydrogel-based microgrippers respond to stimuli and demonstrate the potential to be used in biomedical usage due to their biocompatibility, flexibility, and compact size. Their design and motion in an aqueous environment are studied…

Improving Quorum Sensing by Multi-Level Controller in Cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

The objective of this study was to characterize an array of control mechanisms to strictly regulate inducible gene expression in cyanobacteria. To achieve this regulation, multiple constructs encoding secondary structures were designed and integrated into expression plasmids, preventing the normal processes of central dogma. In conjunction with the primary control found in the inducible promoter…

Christabel Wireko Arthur

Synthesis of a Janus Particle with Gold Nanoparticles and Vesicle-like Mesoporous Silica

A Janus Particle is a special type of nano or microparticle whose surface has two or more distinct physical and chemical properties. The aim of this research is to explore novel Janus topology by fusing plasmonic nanoparticles with mesoporous structures seeking novel materials functionalities. The exceptional geometric engineered plasmonic responses coupled with distinctive mesostructured technology…

Assessment of Native Chain-Elongating Microorganisms in Aquifer Materials from a Superfund Site

Chlorinated ethene contamination is present at hundreds of sites around the U.S. and threatens the health and quality of living in many communities. Complete reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes to ethene is possible by the anaerobic bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi which uses H2 as an electron donor for the process. Microbial chain elongation (MCE) has recently…

Passive Exoskeleton for Sit-To-Stand and Stand-To-Sit Transfer

Imagine the possibility of a cure for one of the most prevalent problems associated with aging. Numerous individuals experience difficulty getting out of bed, sitting, or performing normal tasks due to weak knees. This issue also affects manual laborers who may be compelled to change careers or retire as a result of the strenuous repetitive…

Investigation of Inflammation Behavior of Aminoglycoside-Based Polymer Library

We will investigate the inflammation response an in vivo sample has upon varying polymers. This will include, but will not be limited to, polymers such as: Neomycin-GDE Polymer (NG), Paromomycin-GDE Polymers (PG), and Apramycin-GDE Polymers (AG). These investigations will lay the foundation for the use of these polymers in future work as the inflammation response…

A Decision Support System for Urban Canopy Selection

This project focuses on developing an interactive web interface that evaluates the effectiveness of various shade structures based on certain parameters. During this semester, the interface has been improved by calculating the shortwave and longwave radiations that are needed to get the hourly mean radiant temperature (MRT). The web interface displays a working graph that…

Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the Production of Naringenin

In this work, the research team has engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum with the metabolic pathway for the production of naringenin, a natural anti-Alzheimer’s, an anti-bacterial, and anticancer medicine. The engineered strain overexpresses the heterologous proteins CHI, CHS, and 4CL that convert coumaryl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to naringenin. The team is also working on developing 3 more strains…

Aerospace engineering major Parin Trivedi

CFD Visualization Using Augmented Reality

With the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evolving, several solvers are developed to obtain parameters in a flow. However, interpreting and visualizing this data remains slightly difficult. Techniques such as Augmented Reality (AR) will make it easy to understand a certain phenomenon by having an immersive and interacting experience. AR can provide students insight…

Gait and Balance Comparison Between Young and Elderly Adults: Minimizing Fall Risk

IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units) are commonly used to monitor patients who are prone to falls. With the help of these devices, the research team will simultaneously collect data on both old and younger adults and establish the baseline for fall risk modeling: detecting fall risk in its early stages, preventing it, and providing an effective…

Sample Preparation and Microstructure Characterization of Novel Ceramic Matrix Composites

Accurate assessment of the performance of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) requires capturing inherent manufacturing-induced flaws including defects, voids, and pre-existing cracks. Comprehensive microstructure characterization along with uncertainty quantification are necessary to generate representative volume elements (RVEs) suitable for high-fidelity physics-based multiscale predictive models. Therefore, the objective of this research is to construct a dictionary of…

Engineering of a Microbial Host for the Secretion of Biomass-Degrading Enzymes

Lignin, a naturally occurring biopolymer composed of aromatic carbons, can serve as a feedstock for the sustainable production of several valuable chemicals otherwise obtained from crude oil. However, because it is difficult to break down lignin into its components, it is currently burned for fuel and thus underutilized. To unlock the potential of lignin as…

Determining the Chemical Composition of Toner Used by ASU Photocopiers

This project seeks to analyze the physical properties and chemical composition of the toner used by ASU photocopying machines. Because current paper recycling processes require toner to be removed from paper, the manufacturing of recycled paper is expensive and can result in more greenhouse gas emissions than newly manufactured paper. There is growing interest in…

Raphael David poses at a farmer's market.

Optimizing Vendor Mix at the Downtown Phoenix Farmers Market

Farmers markets (FMs) serve an important role in local food economies. FMs are multi-scalar operations that involve a number of decision-makers: farmers, market managers, and local residents. FMs provide economic benefits to individual farmers, as they serve as a marketplace where local and regional growers and producers can sell products to customers, yet, unlike traditional…

Transfecting B35 Neuroblastoma Cells with Optogenetic Protein for Micropipette Excitation

Subthreshold events are essential because they provide the foundation for neuroplasticity, adjusting the likelihood of reaching an action potential threshold. These events may be visualized on a microscope platform with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). VSDs are often employed for cortex level changes, however, this ignores local cellular activity. A fluorescence-guided micropipette electrode can be utilized to…

Monocular 3D Object Detection for Traffic Analysis

Recognizing and localizing objects in the 3D space is crucial for a more accurate representation of the environment for various use cases. While significant progress has been achieved with expensive LIDAR systems, 3D object detection is a challenging task given only a single image (without depth information). The research aims to implement a deep learning network that…

The Effects of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Network Interphase and Properties in Buckypaper Membrane on Fracture Toughness Using Atomic Force Microscopy

Understanding the CNT interphase is crucial in discovering potential uses for the multifunctional nanomaterial. Nanocomposites such as CNT are relatively new multifunctional materials that can be utilized in many promising fields, ranging from spaceships to supercapacitors. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to characterize the effect of CNT network interphase in Buckypaper membrane on fracture…

Investigation of Mechanical Strength of Alkali-Activated Mine Tailing

Mining activities are inevitable for industrialization, but mine tailing disposal creates a severe environmental impact. Identifying the applications of mine tailings as potential secondary raw materials would help develop better waste-management techniques. This project focuses on the development of alkali-activated mine tailing binders. In order to attain binders with acceptable compressive strength ranges, different ratios…

Characterization of Trophoblast Derived Exosomes to Engineer an Immunomodulatory Macroencapsulation Device for Cell Therapies

Trophoblasts are cells that populate the human placenta and release extracellular vesicles called exosomes, involved in cell-to-cell communication. Trophoblasts are believed to be involved in site-specific immunomodulation and their exosomes may play a role in preventing immunological attack of the fetus despite presenting foreign antigens. Isolation of these exosomes and their encapsulation within hydrogel macroencapsulation…

Viability and Metabolic Function of INS-1E Cells in Synthetic PEG Hydrogels Suitable to Injection Molding Biofabrication

Pancreatic islet encapsulation has the potential to reverse Type 1 diabetes by protecting transplanted beta cells from immune-cell destruction while allowing passive diffusion of nutrients through a synthetic non-degradable hydrogel barrier. Strain promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reactions, also called copper-free click chemistry, occur at biological pH and temperature, lack cytotoxic catalysts, and have tunable gelation…

Modeling Saffman-Taylor Instability to Guide Material Selection for Dendritic Identification Tags

Saffman-Taylor instability is a fluid dynamics phenomenon that can be used to create dendritic formations that are structurally unique. These dendrites can be used as identification tags, with their distinctive patterns preventing forgery. The physical characteristics of these dendrites are derived from the rheological properties of the fluid material used to produce the branching structures….

Selective Adsorption of CO2 in Mg-MOF-74 Under Humid Conditions

Metal-organic frameworks, also known as MOFs, can be artificially synthesized, and Mg-MOF-74 has been selected. The research analyzes the carbon dioxide adsorption selectivity among ambient air and the functional ability in humid environments. The study concludes that carbon dioxide’s adsorption selectivity is high. Also, the performance of Mg-MOF-74 will sharply decrease its absorption ability in…

High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured Thin Wall Inconel 718

The research team is examining the High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) behavior of thin wall Inconel 718 samples created with additive manufacturing. This is accomplished through the constant-force cyclic testing of printed dog-bone samples. Seven different sample thicknesses (0.3, 0.35, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) and two different post-processing thermal treatments are being considered….

Statistical Analysis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Network Properties in Low Weight Percentage Nanocomposite Materials

The network properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in low weight percentage nanocomposites have never been investigated before. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM) was employed to study the network properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in low weight percentage (0.1 wt% to 1 wt%) nanocomposite materials. The data collected will be…

Understanding Novel Physical Properties of One-Dimensional Disordered Hyperuniform Metamaterials

Disordered hyperuniformity (DHU) is a recently discovered state of matter that demonstrates exciting physical properties. By creating a computer model that represents DHU the research team hopes to demonstrate the effects of DHU on materials and showcase potential applications. DHU could heavily impact radar-based technologies as it is isotropic and can be engineered to have…

Mechanical systems engineering major Nathan Fonseca (right) with Assistant Professor Kenan Song.

3D-Printing Ceramic-Based Solid-State Electrolytes

The current lab production of Solid-State Electrolyte (SSE) for lithium-ion batteries is limited to planar geometries and random porosities. Although SSE has shown improvements, it still faces dendrite propagation issues. Additive manufacturing, known for its rapid prototyping, enables the materials and hierarchies to be modified to mechanically avert dendrite propagation and prevent further degradation of…

Expanding Injection Molding Biofabrication to Generate Complex Three-Dimensional Cell Encapsulation Geometries

Encapsulation is a promising technology to deliver cell-based therapies to patients safely and with reduced need for immunosuppression. Macroencapsulation devices are advantageous due to their ease of retrieval, and thus enhanced safety profile, relative to microencapsulation techniques. A major challenge in macroencapsulation device design is ensuring sufficient oxygen transport to encapsulated cells, requiring high surface-area-to-volume…

Evaluation of Shrinkage Cracking in Slab-Wall Systems

Concrete develops strength rapidly after mixing and is highly influenced by temperature and the curing process. The material characteristics and the rate of property development, along with the exposure conditions, influence volume change mechanisms in concrete and the cracking propensity of the mixtures. This cracking tendency can be predicted by measuring the shrinkage in concrete….

Assistive Technology for the Visually Impaired for Navigating Cluttered Environments

Several assistive devices and products have been made available in the market in the past few years for the visually impaired. These devices provide feedback to the user through senses such as audio, tactile and haptics. However, most of them lack a comprehensive solution spanning object recognition, text recognition, haptic feedback, and depth mapping, and…

Virtual Testing Environment for Flexible Drone Flight Simulation and Design Analysis

The use of flexible drones has increased in recent years and testing these designs takes time and effort, because virtual testing environments are rarely available. This project aims to make a high-fidelity simulation to run virtual tests on one such flexible drone: SQUEEZE. Physics-based simulators can test both its hardware utility and flight control software…

A Soft Drone for Whole Body Perching

With the increase in demand for drones with high endurance times for surveillance operations, the current mechanisms proposed in literature include rigid graspers to help perch the drones on various objects and perform energy harvesting. This grasper mechanism has certain limitations since it cannot conform to irregular objects and also increases weight. To overcome this,…

Nitish Jolly (right) and Ayan Mallik.

Multi-Constraint Optimization and Co-Design of a 2-MHz All-GaN based 1kW 96% Efficient LLC Converter

With the objective of minimizing the power losses in a 2 MHz LLC resonant converter, a novel multi-variable multi-constraint design optimization algorithm is developed and analyzed in this manuscript. Intricately curated constraints and corresponding design-based trade-offs are explained for a complete co-design of a multi-MHz resonant converter that result in an efficiency enhancement of 3.46%,…

Simulating Scarcity in Virtual Reality

In this research project, the researcher aims to assess the viability of virtual reality (VR) as a means of creating poverty simulations so as to allow later efforts to take advantage of the benefits the medium brings over traditional physical simulations. To this end, the researcher is constructing and testing a minimum viable product (MVP)…

Trophoblast-On-Chip Model

The maternal-fetal interface is challenging to investigate in in vivo models due to species-specific differences in placental development and ethics evaluating placental development in humans during gestation. The research team aims to develop a 3D placental microfluidic culture system (trophoblast-on-a-chip model) to mimic the human placental microenvironment by reproducing key placental microenvironment elements such as…

Enhanced Control of Microbial Cometabolism of Organic Pollutants

Trichloroethene (TCE) is a ubiquitous groundwater contaminant worldwide. Aerobic cometabolism is a possible bioremediation approach for diffuse TCE plumes. This research evaluates TCE cometabolism (using propane and oxygen as substrates) in the presence or absence of acetylene and 1,4-dioxane. Acetylene is a microbial inhibitor that could be used to decrease biomass production and minimize bioclogging…

Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Between Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Radiative heat transfer between two planar surfaces can exceed blackbody limits when its separation distance is less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this MORE research, preliminary mathematical calculations are performed to theoretically study near-field radiative heat transfer between boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) thin films. It is a daunting challenge to experimentally characterize…

Development of an in vitro Model for the Identification of Volatile Biomarkers of Pneumonia

Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of global mortality affecting 2.49 million people annually due to poor diagnostic measures. In recent years, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have emerged as easily accessible biomarkers for use in point-of-care diagnostics. The objective of this study is to detect biomarkers of pneumonia through custom-built technology for monitoring VOCs…

Weibull Analysis of Dry CNT Network Interphase Thickness in 2D Buckypaper Membrane

The researcher will manufacture a dry carbon nanotube (CNT) network in a 2D buckypaper membrane. The researcher will use Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM) to measure the interphase thickness between the CNT network and the epoxy resin. Weibull model will be used for statistical analysis of the interphase thickness.

Assessing the Effect of Overparameterization in Quantum Neural Networks

Current quantum devices aim to leverage quantum mechanical features in tandem with classical computing resources to iteratively solve high-value problems even the best supercomputers would be incapable of. For instance, one application of quantum neural networks (QNN) is to find the ground state energy of molecules. However, the utility of such algorithms is currently limited,…

Boosting TCR and Epitope Binding Affinity via Supervised Contrastive Loss

In this paper, the research team investigates using Supervised Contrastive Loss (SCL) instead of Cross Entropy Loss (CEL) as the loss optimization function in existing machine learning models that are used to predict T-cell receptor (TCR) and Epitope binding affinity. The goal of SCL is to pull positive examples away from negative ones in latent…

Sensing Crystallinity During Non-Isothermal Melt Crystallization Processes in Semicrystalline Polymers

Our research group recently developed a fluorescence technique for sensing the melting transitions of semi-crystalline thermoplastics and has been extended to an in-situ study of non-isothermal melt crystallization by monitoring the T-dependent fluorescence intensity of fluorescent probes. The first derivative of this intensity data provides insight into the onset, peak, and endset crystallization temperatures, all of…

An Inexpensive and Simple Optical Sensor System for Lab-Based Rapid Testing

With the uncertainty and high-risk nature of infectious diseases, rapid testing is needed to protect the community from an epidemic. A new antigen testing method using Gold Nano-Particles (AuNP) is used to detect viral concentration based on light absorbance of the samples. A system consisting of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes has been used as…

Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Managed Aquifer Recharge System

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) offers sustainable replenishment of groundwater resources using treated wastewater effluent. Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) may withstand wastewater treatment, conferring the ability of bacteria to resist antibacterial treatments. This presents a human and environmental health concern as the efficacy of antibiotic treatments for common infections is reduced. Optimized treatment and safe management…

Energy Absorption of Standard and Origami-Inspired Honeycomb Structures

The goal of this experiment was to examine the energy absorption properties of origami-inspired and standard honeycomb structures varying the materials and wall thickness. The results indicate that origami-inspired structures perform best at energy absorption at a higher wall thickness with a rigid material. The results also indicated that standard honeycomb structures perform better with…

Computer science major Benjamin Joseph L. Herrera (left) is developing VivyNet, a tool that lets anyone create music from poems with artificial intelligence, with Assistant Professor Yezhou Yang (left).

VivyNet: A New Approach to Creating AI-Generated Music

Advances in machine learning (ML) have allowed researchers to simulate human behaviors. One such behavior is content generation. This field of artificial media creation is difficult to perfect as there are multiple ways an ML model can perform poorly. This difficulty affects the quality of the generated content and does not truly mimic the human…

Synthesis and Characterization of PEG-Polyurethane for Biomedical Applications

Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-Polyurethane polymers are currently being investigated for biomedical applications such as tissue regeneration, heart applications, and wound healing. Improving the overall properties of PEG-Polyurethane can address a variety of clinical needs. The focus of this research is to optimize the overall properties of PEG-Polyurethane for regeneration by looking at structure, molecular weight…

Flow Visualization of Laminar Mixed Convection in Transparent 3D-Printed Channels

This study investigates the spatiotemporal instabilities of mixed convection in horizontal channels through 3D printing of transparent channels and dye injection flow visualization. Flow channels are printed using a digital light processing (DLP) 3D printer and polished until they become transparent. The flow visualization technique used is the dye injection method in which a high-speed…

Assessing Visuospatial Function Using the Shepard-Metzler Mental Rotation Task in an Online 3D Mode

Over the years, the Shepard-Metzler Mental Rotation Task (MRT) has proven to be a reliable tool for assessing people’s visuospatial ability. This study will compare the online 3D MRT to the 2D version, using this technique to examine how people learn and perform motor skills. The Ursina Engine is being used to create a 3D…

Drainage Flow of a Viscous Compressible Fluid (Gas) from a Small Curved Narrow Conduit

Current natural gas reserves lie trapped in dense rocks. As such, to access these gas resources efficiently, a better understanding of its production mechanisms is required. The research starts with a study of a volumetric expansion-driven drainage flow of a viscous compressible fluid from a small capillary and channel in the low Mach number limit….

3D Printing of Bioinspired Damage-Tolerant Ceramic Matrix Composite

Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are known for their durability, stiffness, and high-temperature tolerance whereas the problem with these CMCs includes the lack of mechanical flexibility and ability to withstand superior fatigue. As seen in nature, the acorn weevil rostrum displays such properties of flexibility and toughness that prevent high structural damage. In this proposed research,…

Molten Salt Screening for Electrically Enhanced CO2 Splitting with Ceria

Ceria (CeO2) can be used to split CO2 in a two-step thermochemical process. Oxygen vacancies are formed in the ceria by endothermic reduction at high temperatures. CO2 is used to oxidize the ceria, and the vacancies are filled by oxygen in the carbon dioxide, producing CO. The introduction of a high electric field allows the…

Optimizing the Design of Structural Joints for Use in Composite UAV Structures

The structural design of small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) remains an under-explored area of research in the realm of aircraft design. While composite structures are becoming more prolific in industry, these technologies are often out of reach for use in smaller UAVs, which are subject to tighter budgetary and personnel constraints. As such, this FURI…

Disaggregation of Time Series Energy Consumption Data of Residential Buildings Using Data Analytics Approaches

Buildings, consuming ~40% of U.S. total energy, exhibit significant operational inefficiencies leaving an opportunity to implement various energy-efficiency measures. Time series building energy data analyses in the past gave insights into building operation and characteristics, specific insights into HVAC scheduling, daily operational variation, and the relative impact of temperature and solar radiation complementary time series…

Effectiveness of Waist Vibrotactile Feedback for Improving Posture Balance

This research verifies the effectiveness of improving posture stability through vibrotactile biofeedback under oscillatory circumstances, which is simulated by the force platform. Subjects were asked to perform a quiet stance on the force platform wearing the biofeedback device and the same protocol was performed on the other day after lower body exercise to induce fatigue….

Effect of Fused Deposition Modeling Printing Parameters on Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of PLA/Nanodiamond Composite

Poly Lactic Acid (PLA), a thermoplastic polymer is well known for its biocompatibility, making it ideal for the manufacturing of biomedical devices. However, the current applications of PLA are limited by its intrinsic polymer characteristics. To enhance these properties, a biocompatible nanodiamond enhanced PLA filament has been studied. Four printing parameters — nozzle temperature, layer…

Implementation of Mechanophores into Shape Memory Polymers to Create Self-Sensing, Self-Healing Composite Materials

Previous work incorporated mechanophore, a material that undergoes chemical or physical response under mechanical stress, into an epoxy resin to create a composite that emits fluorescence under stress. This fluorescence can signal stress prior to mechanical failure and provide early damage detection. The work improves shape memory polymer epoxy with self-sensing and self-healing capabilities. This…

Assessing Organic Farm Nutrient Management

The United States Department of Agriculture provides requirements for a farm operation to become certified organic, but how do these regulations influence nutrient management? There is insufficient evidence to show the current regulations on nutrient sourcing and application are feasible and effective. An online survey was administered to owners and operators of organic farms. Survey…

Analysis of Small Cell Lung Cancer-Specific Volatile Organic Compounds in Hypoxic Conditions

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, where 84% of cases are diagnosed late when treatments are no longer effective. Limitations in current diagnostic tools have resulted in dedicated research identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) specific to cancer. Due to altered biochemical pathways, it is hypothesized that different cancer cells have unique…

Flexible Fractal-Inspired Metamaterial for Head Imaging at 3 Tesla MRI

The noninvasiveness and increased tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make it an advantageous diagnostic tool relative to its contemporaries, such as CT and PET scans. In high-field MRI, particularly in 3T systems, standing wave effects are present due to the shorter wavelengths proportional in size to the patient, generating bright and dark spots…

Covalent-Organic-Framework Polymerization and its Crystallinity

Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) are a new class of crystalline and porous polymers constructed by covalently linking organic monomers into 2D or 3D ordered networks. Due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, tunable pore size, and controllable chemical reactivity, COFs offer unique functionality for molecular separation, sieving, and catalysis applications. Imine-linked COFs are particularly attractive owing…

Chemically Recyclable Poly(Thiol-Ene) Elastomers

Conventional petroleum-based polymers are not biodegradable, or easily recyclable. The goal of this research is to synthesize crosslinked photopolymers via thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. These materials may be synthesized by a one-step reaction with commercially available materials, encouraging future scalability. Specifically, thiol-containing monomers and multifunctional alkenes undergo photopolymerization in the presence of a photo-initiator, forming a…

Monte Carlo Simulations of Dense Particle Packings: Applications to Material Self-Assembly and Batteries

There is interest in pursuing solid-state batteries as an alternative to the liquid/polymer gel batteries mostly used today. Sintering has been proposed to process solid-state batteries, but powdered particles can pack differently from one iteration of sintering to another which overall impact the efficiency of solid-state batteries. The research team is focused on studying packing…

Lignocellulosic Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Biochemical Reactor Treating Mining-Influenced Water

Sulfate-reducing biochemical reactors (SRBRs) are a passive treatment method for acidic mining-influenced water (MIW) from active and abandoned mine sites. In an SRBR, microbial communities degrade lignocellulosic substrate, producing electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate reduction produces free sulfide and alkalinity, which remove dissolved heavy metals characteristic of MIW as sulfide precipitates and neutralizes…

Recycling of Plastic Waste for Additive Manufacturing

Due to energy, economic, and logistical difficulties, the poor polymer recycling rate remains a difficulty for humanity today. The usage of thermoplastic materials in the industrial and public open-source additive manufacturing sectors is increasing exponentially, resulting in an increase in worldwide polymer consumption and waste generation. A first step toward achieving this goal is to…

Providing Comprehensive Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder by Using a Virtual Reality Application

The research question that this project seeks to address, is the following. Is it possible to create an immersive virtual reality system for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), capable of providing a sense of presence? If we are able to determine that this is possible, the solution will help us determine the level of…

Chemical engineering graduate student Anna Mangus conducts research as part of the MORE program.

Cryogenic Electron Tomography and 3D Reconstructions of the Intracellular Extracellular Nanowire Interface of Geobacter Sulfurreducens

Geobacter sulfurreducens are bacteria that use cellular respiration to naturally convert carbon substrates into harvestable electricity. Important morphological information of two structures involved in this process remains to be elucidated: conductive protein filaments, called microbial nanowires, and intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). In this work, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy were used…

Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) Recycling via Foam Engineering

Only 16% of plastic products are recycled annually, and polyolefin polymers are at the top of plastic production. Polyolefin polymers include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Our focus is recycling XLPE, which is a by-product of disposing of electrical cables in Arizona. One utility company disposes of…

Unintentional Costs of Vehicle Alert Modality for Driving Hazards

The current research aims to better understand how the modality of in-vehicle alerts affects attention allocation for identification and response to simultaneously occurring driving hazards. The research will use a driving simulator to compare the effects of two stimuli (audio, visual) as alerts on the response times to a secondary hazard. Based on existing research,…

Automated Traffic Incident Detection and Driver Behavior Analysis

Nowadays, there are over 260 million registered vehicles in the United States (most of them are passenger vehicles), and as a result, road safety is an important issue for everyone. However, road safety is often studied based on safety-critical events such as accidents. Traditionally, traffic incidents are reported by police and witnesses manually, which is…

Automated Traffic Incident Detection and Driver Behavior Analysis

Nowadays, there are over 260 million registered vehicles in the United States (most of them are passenger vehicles), and as a result, road safety is an important issue for everyone. However, road safety is often studied based on safety-critical events such as accidents. Traditionally, traffic incidents are reported by police and witnesses manually, which is…

Energy Absorption in Aperiodic Cellular Materials

Aperiodic cellular materials are an instance of a patterned cellular material in which randomness is introduced into the geometry generation. This change in cellular design can be used to distribute forces in the structure to modify its mechanical properties. Of specific interest in this work, the material can be designed to optimize energy absorption per…

An Analysis of Callisto Insertion Methods for a Spacecraft Utilizing a Space Elevator Trajectory

Investigating possible solutions to high entry velocities associated with the usage of a space elevator launch system for a mission to the Jovian moon of Callisto is crucial to feasibility. Employing high-velocity methods, such as a space elevator launch, greatly reduce the travel times and allow for the increased possibility of human colonization. However, the…

A Systematic Study on Quantifying Bias in GAN-Augmented Data

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can be used to augment the amount of information in datasets. However, upon training on certain datasets, GANs can magnify already existing biases in them. In image datasets, biases pertaining to protected attributes such as race or gender could be exacerbated, resulting in harmful societal consequences. This study aims to evaluate…

Identification of Critical Habitat for Western Yellow-billed Cuckoos Through an Operations Research Modeling Approach

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo is a riparian obligate species in Western North America, meaning that its survival is tied to the health of riparian ecosystems. Degradation of suitable habitat due to human activity has caused significant decline in the population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo. This has led to the population being listed as “threatened” under the…

Effects of Crosslinker Molecular Weight on Mechanoresponsive Polymer Nanocomposites

This project aims to improve the performance of a previously researched nanocomposite which fluoresces when physically damaged/strained. Shortening the amine crosslinker used is hypothesized to increase crosslink density and cause the fluorescence mechanism to activate at lower strain levels. This damage detection would prove useful in aerospace manufacturing or building materials as an early warning…

Jupiter Orbital Transfer/Colonization

With the utilization of a space elevator, the distant reaches of the solar system can finally be prospected for human colonization. The Jovian moon Callisto provides the best chance of establishing a self-sufficient colony based on the geological composition of the moon. This project will determine the first series of supply missions, over a span…

Effect of Bimodal Sensory Integration on Reactionary Impulsivity

This research investigates the utilization of neural summation resulting from multisensory integration during action inhibition. Combining the race model inequality, which implies neural summation from bimodal stimuli, with the stop signal (SS) tasks, which infers inhibition performance, allows an investigation of psychophysics integrating to cognitive processes. At present, experimental design is finalized and the set-up…

Curved Implementation in a Variable Impedance Controller for a Robotic Ankle Joint

The research conducted in this project seeks to expand the applicability of a recently introduced and experimentally verified variable impedance controller which dynamically modulates both damping and stiffness to inject or dissipate energy and apply stiffness on an estimated trajectory. Previous work implemented the stiffness application along an estimated linear trajectory using an algebraic sum…

Optimization of Uniaxial Testing Apparatus for Micro-Scale Material Systems

Common methods of testing mechanical properties of micro-scale systems need a collection of specialized parts that are costly and difficult to set up. A new uniaxial testing apparatus that has been proposed takes advantage of less costly methods such as 3D printing of tensile fixtures and image reference markers for accurate data acquisition. With such…

Combined Effect of Variable Stiffness and Damping Controller to Correct and Augment Ankle Motion

Human walking is associated with exertion that results in muscle fatigue. Fatigue is an important parameter that determines the deviation of abnormal gait. But accurate forces to an abnormal gait using robots can reduce muscle fatigue and correct the gait deviation. This active control of the ankle assisting device features a variable impedance controller. This…

Antimicrobial Effect of Sulfidized Silver Nanoparticles After a 17 Day Continuous Operation in a Reverse Osmosis Membrane Module for Biofouling Control

Silver is used for the in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes to mitigate biofilm formation. A concentration of 10 mM NaNO3 with Na2S was used to form a partial Ag2S layer observed to slow down the release of silver nanoparticles. In this study, a toxicity assay using Pseudomonas…

Nucleic Acid Delivery from 3D-Printed Scaffolds

3D printing/bioprinting and gene activated matrix are promising techniques to fabricate scaffolds with well-controlled and patient-specific structures and gene delivery for tissue engineering. In this study, we developed derivatives of silk bioink consisting of silk fibroin mixture then 3D printed into scaffolds and further treated with therapeutic DNA. The scaffolds would be evaluated for gene…

Electrically Assisted 3D Printing of PEDOT:PSS Film for Solar Cell Fabrication

Solar cells built using PEDOT:PSS represent a possible new way forward for solar cell technologies. One of the current dilemmas with widespread use of solar cell technology is that large-scale solar panels are less energy efficient than other widely available energy sources. PEDOT:PSS based solar panels have shown great potential for future energy generation. The…

Margarito Hernandez Fuentes

Assaying the Effect of Knock-Down of Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive cancer that resides in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. While treatment options are available, the median survival rate for MPM remains poor. Biological processes, such as ubiquitination, are known to influence protein and cell function. Hence, this research initiative examines cell proliferation and cell apoptosis…

Quantifying the Trends in Wind Speed and Wind Power Potential in Arizona

The task of analyzing long-term wind speed trends across Arizona initially began with sorting data to show what the long-term windspeed trends across Arizona are. Through collection and analysis of the AZMET wind speed data, it was found that the wind speeds tended to decline with respect to time. In the next semester of FURI…

Extended Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion for State Estimation of a Soft Robot Arm

Soft robots could be used directly with humans without the danger that is inherently associated with rigid robots. Currently, one major issue with soft robots is the lack of reliable sensing unless using a motion capture system. This system must be used in a lab. This study investigates a Kalman filter-based sensor fusion of an…

Characterization of Octopus Arms Using EMG Studies

Soft robotics incorporates physically flexible bodies and electronics into robots to achieve organic movements for carrying out tasks. The octopus is a soft-bodied animal and bioinspired insights can be gained by studying its muscles. Electromyography (EMG) studies the electrical activity of an octopus arm’s muscle response and distinguishes the degree that each muscle is involved…

Designing an Affordable Torsional Spring for a Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

Rotary Series Elastic Actuators are commonly used in rehabilitation exoskeletons due to their inherent compliance creating a level of safety and comfort. Designing and manufacturing torsional springs for this purpose that can withstand high loads while having a low spring constant is a challenging task. Existing solutions commonly rely on using multiple planar springs in…

Transient Cryothermal Measurements for Fast Dynamic Radiative Cooling

This project aims to achieve sub-second transient cryothermal measurements of radiative coatings by iterating upon an existing custom cryostat platform. The modifications include suspension of the sample holder within the vacuum chamber to minimize conduction heat loss and an addition of a heat flux sensor between a heating stage and the sample. Existing samples, including…

Understanding Effects of Water Solvation on Adsorption of Selenate on Alumina

Selenate is a soluble oxo-anion frequently found in water, which at high concentrations can have a toxic effect on human health and the environment. Alumina is an effective adsorbent material for removing selenate from water, but is not selective and can adsorb other chemical species, reducing its effectiveness. Using forces calculated from machine-learned electron densities…

Gil Ruiz and his son work on a FURI project.

Providing Comprehensive Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder by Using a Virtual Reality Application

The research question that this project seeks to address, is the following. Is it possible to create an immersive virtual reality system for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), capable of providing a sense of presence? If we are able to determine that this is possible, the solution will help us determine the level of…

Chemotherapeutic Drug-Conjugated Microbead Technology for Selective Binding with Methylated and Unmethylated Small DNA in the Application of Disease Detection and Biomanufacturing

In a previous study, it was discovered that aminoglycoside-derived cationic polymer microbeads (called Amikabeads) have significant binding affinity towards negatively charged plasmid DNA due to coulombic interactions. The purpose of this study is to develop a small library of modified Amikabeads with a variety of DNA-intercalating chemotherapeutic drug molecules to modulate the ability of DNA…

Treated Waste Plastics: A Solution for Enhancing the Performance of Concrete Construction

The environment today is facing concerns about over-accumulation of plastics in landfills as well as excessive CO2 emissions. Containers and packaging take up approximately 15 million tons each year, and accumulations such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch are entering the oceans. Work has been done to alter and treat polyethylene plastic to be added…

Identifying Novel Low-Cost Current Collector Materials for Fuel Cells

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity. Current collection is a big challenge for these devices because the electrodes are often porous making it difficult for the electrons to transport due to limited conductivity. An extensive literature review on microtubular SOFC current collection has been undertaken…

Real-Time Object Detection Using Image and Lidar Data

Lidar and camera sensor data are utilized, along with an object detection model, to recognize vehicles and their distances from the sensor system. This research project would help drivers by serving as a tool to help recognize potential dangers on the road. It also has the potential to be integrated into the car’s system to…

Ideal Conditions for Reactive Extraction of Ethyl Acetate with lipase Novozym 435

Optimizing the extraction of desirable solvents with enzymes will help develop a sustainable biological model for producing esters.

Calibration of Single-Stage Gas Gun for Low Velocity Impact Studies

Through a series of experiments and adjustments, a single-stage gas gun at the Adaptive Intelligent Materials and Systems Center is calibrated for accurate and consistent use when launching projectiles at a desired velocity. Using a wide range of aluminum and steel projectiles with varying shapes and weights, both the velocity of the projectile close to…

Assessing Spectrophotometry for Regenerative Medicine Biomanufacturing Biomonitoring

Regenerative medicine utilizes living cells to replace or repair damaged or diseased tissue. Living cells are constantly changing and reacting to their environment, therefore the manufacturing process to get those cells requires techniques for careful monitoring of the dynamic situation. Spectrophotometry is a candidate for such a technique, as it is non-invasive and can analyze…

Development of CRISPR Interference Constructs to Modulate the Phenotypic Switch of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Previous studies highlight the critical role that upregulation of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) plays in promoting the pathological phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This FURI project adopted a CRISPR Interference (CRISPRi) approach to perturb KLF4 expression and exert an anti-proliferative effect on cultured VSMCs. Specifically, small guide RNAs (sgRNA) targeting the KLF4 gene…

Light-Activated Sealants for Internal Organ Repair and Healing

Current techniques for internal organ sealing and repair can cause additional trauma, may lack adhesive properties, or cause an inflammatory response. The focus of this study is to develop a film that, when activated by light, will adhere to the target tissue, while keeping the edges of the wound approximated, providing an alternative to sutures,…

Direct Ink Writing of Nanocomposite Polymers for Shape Memory Actuation

The research will develop a multiphase composite direct ink writing 3D printing process using two dissimilar polymer and nanoparticle solutions. The fabricated samples possess shape memory, which means that after exposure to suitable external stimuli (i.e., temperature or magnetic force), the samples will recover to their original shape after deformation. This class of objects is…

The Impact of Ambient Temperatures on Power System Transmission and Distribution

The motivation behind this research is to identify a relationship between ambient temperatures and power system efficiency, specifically within transmission and distribution (T&D) elements, to suggest methods to create a more resilient system. To achieve this, Ansys, a high-level modeling software, is utilized to conduct a coupled analysis between electromagnetic induction and ambient thermal stress….

Analysis of Additively Manufactured Sintered Wicks for Use in Developing Heat Pipes

The development of additively manufactured sintered wicks and heat pipes will allow for the design and creation of integrated heat sinks and pipes in designs not possible through standard manufacturing processes currently relied upon. It is also possible to explore designs of more efficient thermal dissipation designs, such as those seen in nature. This work…

Directly Relating Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) Data to Membrane Conductivity during Neural Activity In Vitro

This research is concerned with analyzing a new type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) called magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) which may be able to be used to more directly image brain activity. By measuring where electrical current is flowing through the brain, MREIT should be able to show which areas are more conductive,…

3D Printing of Bioinspired Damage-Tolerant Ceramic Matrix Composite

Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are known for their durability, stiffness, and high-temperature tolerance whereas the problem with these CMCs includes the lack of mechanical flexibility and ability to withstand superior fatigue. As seen in nature, the acorn weevil rostrum displays such properties of flexibility and toughness that prevent against high structural damage. In this proposed…

Air Pollution Control Using Cool Coat Surface Technology

This project explores how specific hydrocarbons interact and chemically react over surfaces. The chemistries of common gaseous hydrocarbons are investigated over common infrastructure materials coated with a temperature-regulating (cool coating) material. Chemical adsorption and reaction are characterized, and a mathematical relationship between air pollutant removal over the coated surfaces as a function of temperature and…

Inference of Brain Morphology From Spatial Gene Expression

The Allen Brain Atlas offers an atlas of gene expression across the whole mouse brain, but spatial transcriptomic datasets are beyond direct interpretation. Reducing dimensionality with principal component analysis (PCA) and partitioning with k-means clustering yields labels that reflect classical anatomy, albeit imperfectly and at the cost of gene information. We perform supervised classification with…

S. Saketha Ramunajam Samavedam

Imaging Methods to Augment Human Vision Beyond Direct Line-of-Sight with mmWaves

This project is aimed at developing a robust classification and reconstruction mechanism capable of accurately estimating and correcting the position of objects that are hidden behind line-of-sight obstacles. This is achieved by applying techniques of ray casting/tracing, edge detection and estimation on images collected from a mmWave camera testbed. These results can be applied to…

Enhanced Air Dehumidification Using Stretchable Tubing

Dehumidifiers are essential household appliances in many tropical regions of the world, where high ambient humidity can lead to negative health effects ranging from physical discomfort to mold-related sicknesses. Common dehumidifiers are based on mechanical refrigeration cycles using refrigerated copper tubing as a condenser, where condensed droplets are shed by gravity alone. Recent advances in…

Graph-Guided-Assembly and Typing of the HLA Alleles from RNA-seq Data

The HLA, Human Leukocyte Antigens, are encoded by a polymorphic set of genes where even a single base change can impact the function of the body’s immune response to foreign antigens (Gao, 2001). Although many methods exist to type these alleles using whole-genome sequencing, few can use the more popular RNA sequencing with its inconsistency…

Annika Wines

Electrocatalytic Reduction of Nitrate via Nickel Foam Modified with Copper-Cobalt Nanoparticles for Ammonia Selectivity

The standard Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia (NH3) for use in agriculture applications is both energy and resource-intensive. This research advances a cost-effective alternative to ammonia production using catalytic activity tuned for ammonia production from nitrate reduction via three-dimensional nano-enabled electrodes. The combined electroactivity of copper and cobalt nanoparticles onto an affordable electrode medium (nickel…

Exploring the Extreme Structural Parameters of Hyperbolic Metamaterials

Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are nano-engineered metal-dielectric composites that feature extraordinary wave-vector dispersion and spontaneous emission engineering. These properties count strongly on the structural parameters such as unit cell size and the quality of the interface. Conventional HMMs are produced via top-down technologies (e.g., e-beam lithography, focused ion beam), which have inevitably suffered from the limitations…

Harnessing Zika Virus to Access the Neuroimmune System

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in nearly every neurodevelopmental, and degenerative disease, yet the capability to manipulate neuroimmune cell types remain limited. Microglia, a neuroimmune cell type, have developed a resistance to established viral tools. However, it has been shown that Zika Virus can suppress the microglial immune response. In recent years, research into Zika has developed…

Active Vibration Protection for Rocket Electronics

This research explores the ability to use control algorithms and AI to stabilize electronics in a rocket payload bay. Since the payload is often quite delicate (expensive satellites, robotics, and other spacecraft), special care is put into the rocket design and the choices of electronics to ensure that no damage occurs from the violent vibrations…

Maya Muir (left) works with her mentor Assistant Professor Ariane Middel (right).

A Decision Support System for Urban Canopy Selection

As record heatwaves are being seen across the globe, new tools are needed to support urban planners when considering infrastructure additions. This project focuses on developing an interactive web interface that evaluates the effectiveness of various shade structures based on certain parameters. The interface requests user input for location, date, and shade type, then returns…

Immunomodulatory Exosome Loaded Synthetic Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation

Pregnancy is a natural phenomenon where tissue types of different antigen signatures co-exist without eliciting an immune response from the host. Immunomodulation occurs in a site-specific manner at this interface and trophoblast cells found in the placenta are believed to play a role. In order to understand and mimic this site-specific immunomodulation, trophoblast representative cell…

Determining an Optimal Task-Allocation Algorithm for Multi-Tethered Rover (MuTheR) Systems

Multi-tethered rover (MuTheR) systems present an improved way to explore the terrain in lunar and planetary missions by utilizing the teamwork and buddy-system advantages associated with robots physically connected together. Part of a larger NASA project aimed towards the planning, estimation, and control of MuTheR systems, the fall semester component of this project involves implementing…

3D-Printed Jet-Based Cooling Heat Exchanger for Electronic Devices

This project explores the potential of 3D-printed jet-based cooling heat exchanger, also called 3D-printed jet cooler, to cool electronic devices. Unlike traditional metal-based jet coolers, this 3D-printed jet cooler will be fabricated using polymers which considerably reduce the fabrication cost while still offering wide geometric freedom that would offer new designs and possible configurations. The…

Engineering of Light-Based Promoters with PACE and eVOLVER Continuous Culture Hardware

Phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE) is a revolutionary new method to rapidly engineer new genes and proteins, but the method requires extensive automation and expensive chemical inducers for precise control of gene expression. The researcher is developing an advanced method of synthetic gene regulation for process control, using optogenetics. By integrating light-based gene circuits with custom…

The Mechanical Performance of Functional Material Fabricated via Structural Beams Based Photopolymerization

Explore the tensile and compress mechanical property of Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing in vertical and horizontal directions which can help the further design with industrial structure engineering. Find the relationship of tensile and compress mechanical property of continuous volumetric printing process with four different levels of grayscales of light resource and printing speed settings. Use…

FURI researcher Tina Sindwani

Impact of Gamification on Student Motivation and Success in Engineering Courses

The research question that this project seeks to answer is the impact of gamification in two engineering courses, one at the freshman level and the other junior, on students’ overall success and motivation, based on academic performance, academic level, and gender. This research question is addressed using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. In each…

Sustainable Foam Engineering of Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) Thermal Insulation Recycling

Crosslink Polyethylene (XLPE) is a thermoset that degrades carbon dioxide (CO2) before reaching its melting point. Annually, 450 tons of XLPE end up on landfills from electrical cables in Arizona state. Therefore, the object is to create sustainable processes for recycling XLPE by understanding material properties and characterization. For example, one protocol disperses XLPE into…

Engineering of a Microbial Host for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Biomass

Developing a microbial platform for the breakdown of recalcitrant biomass will enable the sustainable production of valuable chemicals.

Unintentional Costs of Vehicle Warning Modality for Driving Hazards

The current research aims to better understand how the modality of in-vehicle alerts affects attention allocation for identification and response to simultaneously occurring driving hazards. The research will use a driving simulator to compare the effects of two stimuli (audio, visual) as alerts on the response times to a secondary hazard. Based on existing research,…

Identification of Critical Habitat for Western Yellow-billed Cuckoos Through an Operations Research Modeling Approach

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo is a riparian obligate species in Western North America, meaning that its survival is tied to the health of riparian ecosystems. Degradation of suitable habitat due to human activity has caused significant decline in the population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo. This has led to the population being listed as “threatened” under the…

Autonomous Vehicle Object Detection on LiDAR Point Cloud Using Deep Learning Model

In order to improve the current advanced driver assistant system, more accurate input information of the vehicle’s surround is required. The project serves to improve this input information as LiDAR sensor data is not affected by the lighting of the surrounding environment. The project can also be applied in security systems where cameras’ ability to…

An Analysis of Callisto Insertion Methods for a Spacecraft Utilizing a Space Elevator Trajectory

Investigating possible solutions to high entry velocities associated with the usage of a space elevator launch system for a mission to the Jovian moon of Callisto is crucial to feasibility. Employing high-velocity methods, such as a space elevator launch, greatly reduce the travel times and allow for the increased possibility of human colonization. However, the…

Passive Haptic Learning as a Reinforcement Modality for Information

The possibility of passively absorbing new information while engaging in other activities calls for attention especially in today’s culture where time is valued the most. This topic is generally called Passive Haptic Learning and usually information is transmitted through haptic feedback generated by small vibration motors similar to a smartphone vibration. Previous research determined Passive…

Towards the Development of a Longitudinal Rehabilitation Study for Postural Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Studying how children with cerebral palsy balance under certain circulstances will inform future rehabilitation methods.

Data Offloading in 5G Wireless Networks

Implementation and testing of data offloading in 5G wireless networks can be accomplished using Software Defined Radio (SDR). Machine learning classification techniques can be applied to identify receiver locations, then deep learning methods utilize the channel data from one receiver to estimate the channel at another, potentially eliminating training overhead for certain channels. Base stations…

Drug Delivery in the Brain Using Iontophoresis through Microscale Pipettes to Modulate Single Cell Function

The need for controlled drug administration has become increasingly critical for the treatment of neurological diseases. Iontophoresis, a technique that uses current to move molecules, has been explored. The goals of this project are a) develop an iontophoretic method of administering drugs on command through microscale orifices, and b) characterize the transients in drug administration….

Development of a Feedback-Based Control Algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking through Load Management

Load Managing photovoltaic (PV) system is proven to be an efficient systematic approach to extract the maximum available PV power. The project focuses on developing a feedback-based control algorithm and analyzing real-time experimental data for its improvement. Results show that the new PV system can perform maximum power point tracking without the need for power…

Study of Direct, Jupiter Insertion Orbits from Space Elevators

Space elevators have the potential to launch thousands of interplanetary missions within the next 5 decades. The extensive amount of opportunities to explore the solar system allows for a large range of scientific experimentation along with increased interplanetary colonization opportunities. There has been limited research published about the potential transfers so they will be tested…

Effectiveness of Algal-Derived MgO-Biochar Nanocomposites for Nitrate and Phosphate Removal from Water

With limited fresh water available on Earth, pollutants such as fertilizer run-off and sewage create high nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorous that threaten the future of safe, drinkable water. One way to remove and recover these nutrients from water includes adsorption using activated carbon. Algal biomass is a cheap and fast-growing carbon source that…

Bioengineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the Synthesis of Short-Chain and Long-Chain Esters

Optimizing bioreactors to produce similar products to petrochemicals would help industries to be more sustainable.

Jupiter Orbital Transfer/Colonization

With the utilization of a space elevator, the distant reaches of the solar system can finally be prospected for human colonization. This project will determine that the Jovian moon Callisto provides the best chance of establishing a self-sufficient colony based on the geological composition of the moon. By determining the first series of supply missions…

Enabling Horizontal Burrowing of a Multi-Segment Soft Robot

The objective of the research is to design a horizontal self-burrowing soft robot. Previous research has shown that inducing forward horizontal burrowing involves breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the robot and strategically manipulating the surrounding soil. A successful design is to include multiple segments that each plays a role in the overall movement. This includes…

Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) from Water by Ion Exchange (IX)

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are toxic anthropogenic compounds widely used in the industry due to their stability, persistence, and repellency. One reliable mechanism recently adapted for the removal of the so-called “forever chemicals” from water is ion exchange (IX). The research team will evaluate the impact of different operating conditions on PFAS adsorption including anion exchange…

Development of a Genome Editing Tool to Target Modulation Genes In Vascular Smooth Muscle Tissue

Vascular stenosis, a pathology characterized by plaque buildup in arteries, is associated with a biological hallmark: the phenotypic switch from a quiescent contractile to a proliferative synthetic phase of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This phenotypic switch subjects VSMCs to the synthetic phase in which cell proliferation and vascular remodeling and restenosis are highly prevalent….

Inference of Brain Morphology from Spatial Gene Expression

The Allen Brain Atlas offers an atlas of gene expression across the whole mouse brain, but spatial transcriptomic datasets are beyond direct interpretation. Reducing dimensionality with principal component analysis (PCA) and partitioning with k-means clustering yields labels that reflect classical anatomy, albeit imperfectly and at the cost of all gene information. Factorization machines (FM) potentially…

Synthesis of Porous Carbons Using Disposed Facemasks for the Recovery of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients from Wastewater

High levels of nutrients in water such as nitrogen and phosphorus impact the survival of aquatic ecosystems and threaten water resources. Other pollutants in water include plastic, which has been worsened by the onset of face mask mandates amid the COVID-19 pandemic. One way to remove and recover nutrients from water is adsorption using activated…

Enabling Circular Economies of Recyclable Materials Through Matrix Completion

An integral part in improving our recycling process is the development of circular economies. One of the major hindrances to the development of circular economies is the incompleteness of commodity flow data. To tackle this problem, the research team aims to leverage matrix completion methods to fill in missing information. Initially, the methods will be…

Hydrolysis of Cellulose With Engineered Recombinant Bacillus Subtilis

Engineering bacteria to convert cellulose into glucose will allow for cheaper utilization of biomass to make sustainable fuels.

Engineering of Light-Based Promoters with PACE and eVOLVER Continuous Culture Hardware

Phage assisted continuous evolution (PACE) is a revolutionary new method to rapidly engineer new genes and proteins, but the method requires extensive automation for precise control of gene expression. The researcher is developing an advanced method of synthetic gene regulation using optogenetics, integrating light-based gene circuits with custom hardware for directed evolution. Optogenetic allows for…

Light-Activated Sealants for Internal Organ Repair and Healing

Current techniques for internal organ sealing and repair can cause additional trauma, may lack adhesive properties, or cause an inflammatory response. The focus of this study is to develop a film that, when activated by light, will adhere to the target tissue while keeping the edges of the wound approximated, providing an alternative to sutures,…

High-Speed 3D Printing of Electroactive Hydrogel for Soft Robotics

A new method of additive manufacturing called Projection Micro Stereolithography (PμSL) has made fabricating micro-scale designs more convenient, and is capable of printing high-resolution electroactive hydrogel parts from photosensitive liquid resin. This hydrogel can exhibit in response to an electric field without external mechanical input while submersed. The hydrogel demonstrates large deformations with relatively fast…

Energy Absorption in Aperiodic Cellular Materials

Aperiodic cellular materials are an instance of a patterned cellular material in which randomness is introduced into the geometry generation. This change in cellular design can be used to distribute forces in the structure to modify its mechanical properties. Of specific interest in this work, the material can be designed to optimize energy absorption per…

Learning Complex Behaviors from Simple Behaviors: An Analysis of Behavior-Based Modular Design for RL Agents

In this research, I present an algorithm that aims at combining behavior such that the resulting behavior has characteristics of each individual behavior. This approach has been inspired by subsumption architecture and motor schema-based mobile robot navigation in the domain of behavior-based robotics. The combination algorithm outputs n weights that combine n behaviors by a…

Lily Baye-Wallace demonstrates a hip exosuit

A Soft Robotic Hip Exosuit (SR-HExo) to Enable Entrainment during Human Locomotion

Over 7 million American stroke survivors require gait rehabilitation due to initial or persistent mobility deficits. Expansion of the “basin of entrainment” is a rehabilitative practice that improves gait uniformity through the application of small, periodic, mechanical perturbations to which the human locomotor system then synchronizes. A soft hip exosuit was developed to administer these…

Emma Lieberman works on her Grand Challenges Scholars Program project.

Genetically Engineering the Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Sequester Arsenic from Contaminated Groundwater: ASU International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition Project

Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a serious problem in local rural communities: ~20.7% of wells in Arizona exceed the safe concentration of 10ppb. Prolonged exposure to this contamination can cause cancer, vascular damage, and liver failure. As part of a larger effort for the iGEM summer competition to introduce bioremediation genes into the chloroplast of…

A Systematic Study on Quantifying Bias in GAN-Augmented Headshot Data

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can be used to augment the amount of information in datasets. However, upon training on certain datasets, GANs can magnify already existing biases in them. In image datasets, biases pertaining to protected attributes such as race or gender could be exacerbated, resulting in harmful societal consequences. This study aims to determine…

Mounika Kakarla (right) and faculty mentor Assistant Professor Kenan Song

Manufacture of 3D Printed Composite Structures via Multiphase Direct Ink Writing

Although additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology, the printing resolution for most commercial printers are limited to microscales, especially the lack of high-resolution structural control in the case of polymer/nanocomposites. This research study demonstrated the efficient technology for 3D printing nanocomposites using multiphase direct ink writing (MDIW), a printer designed and assembled in-house. By…

Simulation-Guided Preparation of 3D In Vitro Models with Predictable Oxygen Distribution

Tissue oxygenation is an emerging area of study as scientific literature suggests hypoxia playing a key role in the progression of various diseases including cancer, stroke, and traumatic injuries. This research aims to create, using in silico simulations, an oxygen-sensitive MR imaging scaffold (O2S3DMRS) that allows quantitative mapping of the pO2 distribution within a cell…

CK2 Phosphorylation of Tom22: Conserved or Convergently Evolved?

The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex is the gateway into mitochondria. Phosphorylation of the receptor, Tom22, by the kinases CK1 and CK2 in both animals and fungi control mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. However, whether phosphorylation of Tom22 proteins is widespread across eukaryotes is unclear. In this project, researchers used MUSCLE, HMMER, and…

Designing an Affordable Torsional Spring for a Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

Rotary Series Elastic Actuators are commonly used in rehabilitation exoskeletons due to their inherent compliance creating a level of safety and comfort. Designing and manufacturing torsional springs for this purpose that can withstand high loads while having a low spring constant is a challenging task. Existing solutions commonly rely on using multiple planar springs in…

Perspective Variant Preference-Based Learning with Quadcopter Swarms

Preference-based learning allows for non-expert users to interact with reinforcement learning agents in a way that they can shape their behaviors. This work intends to push the current implementations of preference-based learning forward by introducing binocular vision, multiple perspectives of the agent performing the actions, and multi-agent environments. These three improvements on the existing implementations…

Effects of Crosslinker Molecular Weight on Mechanoresponsive Polymer Nanocomposites

Polymer nanocomposites are the subject of continual promising research due to their multifunctionality and tunability in a wide range of consumer and industrial materials. This research project aims to improve the performance of a previously researched nanocomposite that fluoresces when damaged. The material stress required to provide this damage detection may be tuned to practical…

Synthesis and Characterization of Immunomodulatory Microparticles for the Induction of Tolerance Against Dietary Antigens

Given that metabolism can control immune cell function1 and that the presentation of an antigen by anti-inflammatory dendritic cells can lead to the expansion of anti-inflammatory immune responses2, this project aims to synthesize and characterize alpha-ketoglutarate (aKG)-based microparticles (MPs) encapsulating a glycolytic inhibitor, PFK15, and dietary antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), for the eventual induction of tolerance…

Understanding Machine vs Human Generated Text in News Articles

The aim of this research is to create a model that can take a text input to classify the content of the message into two categories, Machine Generated and Human Written. This research uses Hierarchical Attention Networks (HAN) trained with PolitiFact data to create the predictive model. This model can be run by websites for…

Development and Validation of a Custom Soft-Body FEA Simulator for Rapid Prototyping

This study focuses on the development of a soft-bodied finite element analysis (FEA) simulator for the purpose of early phase prototyping. This simulator facilitates rapid generation of design concepts in the creation of miniature soft-bodied robots. An array of designs of varying complexity will be tested using the simulator, and the most promising models will…

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Polyethylene

The effects of catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of polyethylene with different catalysts on HTL product distribution will be investigated. The research will help SRP eliminate plastic waste from electrical cable insulators and instead produce useful products. HTL of waste plastics will also address sustainability issues by providing a solution for dealing with plastic waste and…

A Comparison of CRISPR/Cas-Derived Genome Editing Methods for hPSCs

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 systems are a vital gene-editing tool for generating in vitro disease models. Since its debut, many CRISPR-derived editing techniques have been created to increase editing efficiency and fidelity. While these techniques all improve some aspects of functionality, there are insufficient resources for determining the optimal workflow for achieving different…

Monitoring Upright Posture in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: Foundations for a System to Provide Real-Time Feedback

Stooped posture is one of the main characteristic features in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). While the severity of stooped posture (SP) varies from person to person, research has shown that the progression of SP can lead to falls and other debilitating accidents. This project aims at developing a real-time feedback system to provide auditory cues to…

Cell Viability of Insulin-Producing Cells After Injection Into Complex Hydrogel Shapes in Macroencapsulation Device

This project investigates an injection molding device for complex hydrogel geometries to macroencapsulate donor islet cells. The injection process requires that cells be mixed with hydrogel and injected into the mold, and therefore are under shear stress and potentially hypoxic conditions during the injection process. To test for cell viability, insulin producing cells were cultured…

Understanding the Impact of the Tempo of Distractions on Cognitive Ability

In order to provide students with the best education, it is critical to understand what distractors may affect their cognitive abilities. The research focuses on understanding whether patterned or randomly timed audio distractions have a larger impact on the students’ performance. Data will be collected (performance, time on task, distractions) through the use of an…

Designing Personalized Assistive Technology for Student with Cerebral Palsy

One of the symptoms of Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the lack of spatial awareness due to the inability to respond well to visual cues. This project seeks to augment visual perception with an auditory feedback system to enhance spatial navigation of a student with CP. When using a wheelchair, the student tends to bump into…

Using Machine Learning to Quantify Colorimetric Assays from Cell Phone Photos

Finding a method to objectively quantify results of colorimetric assays without special equipment is important to increasing the accessibility and portability of point-of-care testing. Point-of-care testing is inexpensive, has quick response times, and has numerous applications ranging from roadside alcohol testing to detecting infections such as COVID-19 or HPV. The focus of this study is…

Modeling and Control of Rocket Ascent in a Vertical Plane

This project uses a simplified model of a thrust vector-controlled rocket in ascent to design and analyze control systems for such a rocket. The dynamical system describing a rocket in powered flight requires a number of assumptions as well as model simplifications and linearizations in order to be analyzed using basic traditional control design techniques….

Solar Membrane Desalination

The project focusses on controlling scaling resistance in solar membrane distillation by monitoring the role of temperature, hydrodynamic conditions and concentration polarization. The researcher hypothesized that the maximum solar water production efficiency will be found in a medium between scaling resistance and high flux. The objectives of this research are to characterize the tradeoff between…

Factors that Influence Ankle Stiffness During the Stance Phase of Walking

Understanding human joint mechanical impedance — a measurement reflecting stiffness, damping, and inertia — is a potentially useful metric for diagnostic purposes that can also aid in the design of new rehabilitative robotics. This research focuses on finding what factors related to human gait have an influence on the mechanical impedance of the human ankle…

Simulation-Guided Preparation of 3D In Vitro Models with Predictable Oxygen Distribution

Tissue oxygenation is an emerging area of study as knowledge suggests that hypoxia plays a key role in the progression of various diseases including cancer, stroke, and traumatic injuries. This research aims to create a 3D in vitro model that allows quantitative mapping of the pO2 distribution within a 3D cell culture with MRI. In-silico…

Alternative Promoter Usage Using Transcription Start Sites

With relatively small genomes, many species have evolved mechanisms for diversifying their transcriptome (set of messenger mRNA transcripts in a given cell). One of the mechanisms to do so is alternative promoter usage (AP), which generates different transcripts by selecting different transcription start sites (TSS). There are existing methods to computationally analyze these TSS, that…

Evaluating How Empathy Optimizes Transparency and Trust in pHRI

This research investigates how a robot’s empathy, the ability to allow humans to misunderstand a robot’s intent, optimizes the transparency and trust in the Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). The robot is first integrated with intent inference and motion planning to think and act like a human in a collaboration scenario. Then, an empathetic intent inference algorithm…

Development of a Genome Engineering Approach for the Modulation of Vascular Phenotypes

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death for cardiovascular diseases and the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) mediated by the upregulation of KLF4 contributes to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or plaque development. The objective of this study is to suppress KLF4 expression in VSMCs via a CRISPR interference mediated mechanism and…

Prototyping of a 5G Ad-Hoc Cellular System on Hardware Kits

This research focuses on the development of a self-correcting 5G ad-hoc cellular network that will connect both fixed and wireless users, regardless of location. A localization proof-of-concept will be prototyped without GPS. The signals are processed coming from USRPs controlled by Raspberry Pis using Machine Learning algorithms to estimate the device’s location. The system will…

A Novel Approach to Perform Rank-One Updates in Machine Learning

The fact that ML algorithms can suffer from significant rounding errors and affect their output has received little attention. Moreover, techniques for avoiding rounding errors tend to be computationally expensive. In this research, we address both these issues by developing efficient roundoff error-free algorithms for solving the sequence of Systems of Linear Equations (SLEs) at…

Employing Deep Learning and GPS Outdoor Positioning for Vision-Aided mmWave Beam Prediction

This project is aimed at utilizing machine learning frameworks to develop an optimized beam training model, capable of predicting the optimal direction of mmWave signal at a considerable success probability, and with no training overhead. This is achieved by using Vision and GPS positional datasets collected from a real-time measurement Testbed. The outcome from this…

Establishing a Testing Method for Axially Continuous Graphene-Coated Copper Wire in High Power Transmission Applications

Electrical power systems in the modern era are being utilized in sectors like transportation, aerospace, and communication for purposes which demand increasing miniaturization capability, current carrying capacity, and environmental stability. New materials which can replace traditional metal wires like copper and aluminum are poised to fill that growing demand. Axially continuous graphene layers synthesized on…

The Impact of External Factors on Multiple-Choice Exams

The purpose of this research project is to utilize statistical analysis techniques to evaluate how exam composition impacts the performance of students on multiple-choice exams. The factors specifically in question are the order in which questions are presented and “Answer not here” being included in the answer choices of an exam. Data on student performance…

Investigation of Reactive Oxidative Stress Using a Uniaxial Stretch Model to Simulate Physiological Micromotion Induced Cyclic Strain on Brain

Physiological micromotion, such as breathing and vascular pulsations, has a significant impact on the reliability of implants used in neuromodulation therapies. Micromotion-induced stresses and strain are hypothesized to impact neuronal function due to oxidative stress. This study seeks to analyze the biological impact of physiological micromotion simulated by a uniaxial stretch model that induces periodic…

Parth Khopkar and Heni Ben Amor

Control and Coordination of Multi-Robot Swarm Systems

Robot swarms show great promise in performing complex tasks in areas ranging from search and rescue to interplanetary exploration and yet controlling the behaviors of these swarms effectively is an open research problem. This research investigates techniques to control a drone swarm where the drones learn to act using demonstrations obtained from artificially generated swarm…

Effect of Impurities on Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Silica Glasses

Silica glasses are an important component for protecting personal and equipment on battlefields. Impact pressures generated by modern weapons can cause silica glass to crystallize from its original amorphous state to a high-density phase called stishovite, impurities in silica glasses prevent this crystallization. To understand the effect on impurities in phase change, molecular dynamics simulations…

Schlieren Optics and Photoacoustic Imaging Development

The purpose of the research is to shorten diagnostic times by developing a new real-time Photoacoustic Microscopy imaging technique. Photoacoustic microscopy can target naturally occurring absorbers as well as exogenous contrast agents which can reveal information regarding underlying health. Traditional methods require multiple scans to reconstruct an image. By combining Schlieren Optics with Photoacoustic Imaging,…

panCanSYGNAL

A web application has been developed to provide data and statistics for comprehensive gene regulatory network of the deadly cancer malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The web application was enhanced to include additional experimental information from CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out outgrowth screens. The ultimate goal of the website is to function as a hypothesis knowledge base and hypothesis…

Jesus Pena and Jay Oswald

The Effectiveness of Hands-On Demonstrations on Understanding Statics Principles

This project seeks to determine whether 3D demonstrations can effectively increase the comprehension of fundamental engineering principles for sophomore students. A physical demonstration was fabricated using acrylic plastic in which an integrated force sensor allows students to visualize the output force generated from a specific force input. The demonstration will be deployed in future statics…

Electrocorticography Array for Simultaneous Measurement of Local Field Potentials and Tissue Oxygenation

Nervous tissue is known to be extremely vulnerable to discontinuities of oxygen and energy substrates. The brain must have a constant supply of energy to prevent abnormal behavior because the vasculature of the brain is coupled to neural processing. Understanding the relationship between the two has only recently been of interest to scientists. Electrocorticography (ECog)…

Dean Spyres and Mayo Clinic staff.

3D Printed Indirect Ophthalmoscope Accessory for Mobile Device

Ophthalmoscopes are integral to diagnosing a variety of eye conditions, however, they often come at a hefty cost and are not generally portable making access limited. With the increase in the prevalence of smart devices and improvements to their imaging capabilities, these devices have the potential to benefit areas where specialized imaging infrastructure is not…

How Does Simulated Physiological, Cyclic Stretch Affect Oxygen Demand at Neural Interfaces?

Neuromodulation devices are a very important therapeutic tool for many neurological disorders such as in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. It is important to know how biological and mechanical processes at the brain-implant interface change due to the implant presence. Physiological micromotion (breathing and vascular pulsation) induces mechanical stresses and modulates local oxygen tension…

Investigation of Stokes Number Effects on Particle-Laden Flows

The goal of this FURI project is to find the particle characteristics that lead to a significant increase to the overall mass flow rate of particle-laden turbulent channel flow. Simulations are analyzed at Stokes number 30, 60, 90 and 100 with a friction Reynolds number of 180. The Stokes number has been varied by changing…

Investigating the Effect of Silver Oxide (AgOx) Layer on the Optical and Electrical Properties of a Perovskite-Based Structure/Device

In recent years, perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have emerged as highly promising solar advancements. This is due to their highly cost-effective manufacturing processes while demonstrating excellent performance. However, the commercialization of perovskite solar cells is hampered by the fact that they are highly unstable, and power conversion efficiency degrades as a result of photo-degradation. The…

Synthesis of 2D Transition Metal Oxides

Metal oxides have known bulk properties but many of them have not been synthesized in atomically thin or two-dimensional (2D) forms, which can enable new properties and functionality. Materials take on vastly different properties when they are on the nano-scale. These have been utilized in many ways such as batteries, insulation, medicine, transportation, optics, and…

Auto-generation of Spatial SQL Queries

In the recent past, there has been an increase in AI-based systems built to make human database interactions seamless, but they rely on interaction sessions that are extremely small. The objective of this research is to auto-generate spatial SQL queries .We implement generation of two varieties of spatial queries for two different applications namely next…

Traffic Analysis with Drone Videos

Recent advances in drones for consumer and professional applications have enabled a wide range of video-based analysis tasks in the air, including urban landscape survey, farmland area counting, and crop yield prediction. However, in the field of transportation system analysis, the capability of “seeing through the traffic from the above” has not been exploited with…

Modeling Mechanical Properties of Fibrous, Polymer Scaffolds as a Function of Fiber Alignment

Musculoskeletal tissues, ranging from tendon to cartilage to bone, contains an extracellular matrix with unique fiber alignments and mechanical properties. Designing tissue engineered scaffolds that mimic these tissue properties is crucial for promoting proper healing after injury. This project will explore how mechanical properties of fibrous scaffolds vary as fiber alignment changes. Specifically, the mechanical…

Modulating Gait Symmetric Adaptation via Split-Belt Treadmill Distortion and Explicit Visual Feedback Distortion and Evaluating the Aftereffects of Adapted Step Length Symmetry

Following neurological disease or injury, such as stroke, it is common for patients to lose functionality and coordination of their lower limbs. Rehabilitation techniques, such as gait training, are widely used in the clinical setting to help patients rebuild their ability to walk independently and efficiently. Previously published studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of split-belt…

Mini Containers Research Project

The Mini Containers Research project aims to reduce the food waste and carbon footprint of the current technologies used for transporting fresh produce by creating individual environmentally controlled containers that monitor the conditions of the product inside to keep it at optimal levels. This will be achieved by retrofitting the back of a trailer to…

Metabolic Engineering for Robust Natural Product Biosynthesis in C. glutamicum

In this work, a pathway within C. glutamicum was to be engineered to produce a flavonoid naringenin. Towards this, as a first step, 4 different plasmid vectors must be constructed with the genes CHSph and 4CLpc, from P. deltoides; CHSat and 4CL2at, from A. thaliana; and CHI, from M. sativa. The process employs a Polymerase…

A Fluorescent Technique for Sensing Melt Transitions of Semi-Crystalline Polymer Thin Films

This research focuses on understanding the melting temperature and crystallization behavior at the interface of multi-layer semi-crystalline polymeric thin films using a location-specific fluorescence technique. The change in emission light intensity of a fluorescent dye-doped or labeled semicrystalline poly(L-lactic acid) film is monitored with increasing temperature. A melting transition region centered at ~170°C was characterized…

Transfecting B35 Neuroblastoma Cells with Near Infrared Protein for Photoacoustic Detection

Viewing biological processes at depth in tissues is essential for the study and diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. Despite recent advancements, current optical techniques are restricted to an imaging depth of ~1mm due to the scattering of light in tissues. In combination with near-infrared fluorescent proteins (IRFP), photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) systems can use light…

Investigation on the Adsorption of Selenium Oxo-Anions on Hematite and Alumina Surfaces

Selenium oxo-anions are toxic substances present in drinking water, these can be removed by using Hematite and Alumina as the adsorbent materials. Density Functional Theory is used to understand the factors affecting the adsorption. Alumina and Hematite have the same crystal structure, allowing to probe composition-dependent effects. The results indicate that outer-sphere adsorption is stronger…

5-DOF Simulations for Parametric Assessment of Missile Engagement Envelope

Surface-to-air missiles engage airborne targets. Upon initial detection, the missile is launched and guided toward the target within a lethal radius around the target, in which its warhead can ensure target defeat. Based on the target range, angle, speed, and direction when the missile is launched, these define an engagement envelope within which the missile…

Photoacoustic Imaging with Schlieren Optics to Provide Real-Time Imaging

Wide-field photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) images are challenging to display in real-time because these images are reconstructed from multiple one-dimensional scans. This delay limits both research and clinical applications for PAM. Schlieren optics is a technique that can visualize sound using standard microscope cameras. By combining Schlieren optics with PAM, this research aims to eliminate the…

Mixed Reality Hardware for Hands On Virtual Science Labs

Virtual reality and its integration into online education could make online lab courses better reflect an in-person lab experience. There is a great opportunity for virtual remote education, especially since the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This project aims to continue development of a virtual titration lab experiment that allows for a student to better replicate an…

Analysis of Biomolecules Using a Novel Sapphire-Supported Nanopore

Solid-state nanopores are a revolutionary technology first devised in the early 1990s that allow researchers to conduct biomolecule analysis, with a potential for fast and low-cost diagnostics. Conventional solid-state nanopores use silicon substrates, however, this project looks to instead utilize insulating sapphire substrates to reduce the high capacitance and noise that is picked up with…

DSL Interface for Spatio-Temporal Perception Logic Specifications

With the rise of autonomous driving systems (ADS), the need for validating the efficacy of the perception subsystems utilized becomes more apparent. The use of Spatio-Temporal Perception Logic (STPL) permits writing formal requirements capable of verifying such systems; however, the development of these written requirements quickly becomes verbose causing overhead in the verification process. Utilizing…

Data Offloading in 5G Wireless Networks

Implementation and testing of data offloading in 5G wireless networks can be accomplished using Software Defined Radio (SDR). Developing a working system through SDR requires overcoming inherent challenges, including compensating for frequency discrepancies between kits, and the synchronization of channel variations caused by non-ideal filtering. Machine learning classification techniques can be applied to identify receiver…

Building a Regulatory Network to Explore the Immune Landscape of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare and deadly cancer that typically consists of tumors in the pleural cavity of the lungs. This research showcases a regulatory network using the previously built SYGNAL network and patient data to identify target regulators that could be used to inspire targeted and effective treatments. Our previous work found three immune subtypes:…

Reprocessable Thermoset Photopolymers in 3D Printing Application

A UV photoinduced step-growth cross-linked network that incorporates dynamic disulfide linkages into the backbone is reported. Multifunctional enes and thiols are used to create a polymer network via photoinduced radical-mediated thiol-ene “click” chemistry. Particularly, the thiol utilized in this investigation is a commercial liquid, low molecular weight oligomer containing disulfide linkages and thiol end groups…

Phosphorus Accumulation in the Gilbert Riparian Preserve Aquifer Recharge Ponds

The objective of this project was to quantify the phosphorus accumulation in the aquifer recharge infiltration ponds at the Gilbert Riparian Preserve and determine if those levels are cause for concern. These ponds are recharged with treated wastewater effluent from the City of Gilbert. Surface water and soil samples were taken from around the central…

CUR Decomposition Method for Dimensionality Reduction of High Dimensional Alloy Data

High Entropy Alloys have potential for application in structural and aerospace industries due to their desirable material properties. These alloys consist of five or more elements, leading to a large search space for material prediction machine learning models, and highly dimensional empirical datasets. For chemical datasets, it is difficult for models to interpret the output…

Design of a Controller for a Lizard Inspired Tube Inspection Robot

In this work, a smart force feedback controller is designed for a Lizard Inspired Tube Inspection (LTI) robot that has force-sensitive sensors embedded in its fingers. The primary function of this controller is to translate the robot application program and convert the commands from its source code to its respective motion. With the help of…

Neighboring Single Atoms Catalyst Acceleration of Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants — An Ab Into Study with Pt Catalyst

Organohalides are toxic materials present in water that are poisonous to living organisms. A common method for decontamination is through hydrodehalogenation using a noble metal catalyst such as Pt and Pd. However, noble metals are expensive and scarcely present, thus their optimization need to increase. This can be done by using single or neighboring atom…

Control of Tissue Homeostasis, Tumorigenesis, and Degeneration by Coupled Bidirectional Bistable Switches

The Hippo signaling pathway plays a key role in determining organ size and maintaining tissue homeostasis through regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Disrupting the balance between these biological processes allows for pathological tissue states, such as degeneration and tumorigenesis, to arise. The proposed research aims to study the Hippo signaling pathway and how it…

Testing Method of Soft Actuator

Elderly around the world have been diagnosed with mobility impairment due to various diseases that cause weak joints and muscles. The Kaiteki Project proposes a wearable hybrid robotic system that will assist and support persons in their daily routine. In order to determine if an actuator is acceptable to be implemented on to a person,…

Statistical Modeling of Drug Release from Spherical Surface-Degrading Particle Batch

Drug-eluting microparticles have been identified as a method of drug delivery capable of delivering controlled local treatment over time. To address the need of adhering to strict drug delivery standards, this project focuses on creating a MathCAD file capable of calculating and illustrating the effects of a particle batch’s mean and standard deviation on drug…

Enhancing Natural Genetic Transformation in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 via Multimeric Integration

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms and reliable sources of renewable feedstocks. Specifically, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine strain of Cyanobacteria that is naturally capable of foreign DNA uptake. Replicating plasmids are traditionally delivered to this strain via conjugation, requiring direct cell-to-cell contact. This method is time-consuming and not easily scalable, therefore this research aims…

Analyzing the Effects of Conduction, Convection, and Radiation in a Rotary Drum

Rotary drums are tools used extensively in chemical manufacturing industries for heating and drying chemical batches. The objective of this study is to analyze the efficiency of different forms of heat transfer (conduction, convection, and radiation) on particles in a rotary drum. The results of this study will outline trends relating the operating conditions of…

Antimicrobial Effect of Sulfidized Silver Nanoparticles After a Three-Month Operation Period in a Reverse Osmosis Module for Biofouling Control

Silver is used for the in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes to mitigate biofilm formation. Different concentrations (10-1, 10-3, and 10-5 M) of Na2S to form a partial Ag2S layer were observed to slow down the release of silver nanoparticles. A testbed trial of the sufidized Ag NPs coated membranes…

Autonomous Online PID Tuning Algorithm and Implementation on a Knee Exoskeleton

Proportional-Integral-Derivative controllers (PID) are widely used in rehabilitation robotics and the ability to tune the controllers in the presence of unmodelled nonlinearities is essential to the performance of the controller. This FURI project addresses this issue by exploring a method to intelligently tune a PID controller autonomously using a global search algorithm, adaptive particle swarm…

RF (Radio Frequency) Micro-Coil Design for Small Animal MRI

The research question to be answered by this project would be whether the developed RF (Resonance Frequency) coil could generate the frequency of 297 MHz that is required to operate a 7T MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scanner by the Larmor frequency. The development of the RF coil frame, the resonating structure, and the interfaced circuit…

Maintaining Long Term Adherence to BRIDGES Protocols

mHealth Apps, also known as Mobile Health Applications, refers to the “use of mobile and wireless technologies to support the achievement of health objectives,” according to the World Health Organization. This project aims to support the BRIDGES protocol developed by the REACH Institute to aid at-risk youth in learning and practicing skills such as conflict…

Sonication-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of B4C Nanosheets for Fabrication of a Solar Steam Generator

A solar steam generator is a device that uses solar energy to produce steam in order to desalinate and purify water. More efficient and cheaper materials are needed to absorb sunlight to heat up the water and make steam. The researcher found a new layered material, boron carbide (B4C) can be exfoliated though bath sonication….

The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Startle Response

The reticulospinal system of the brain is responsible for learning motor skills. As humans age, the quality and quantity of sleep continually decreases leading to memory and learning deficits. In this crossover study, delays in the reticulospinal system of sleep-deprived participants will be determined through the startle reflex. Electromyography (EMG) muscle onsets of sternocleidomastoids are…

Development of a Wearable Hybrid-PassiveAnkle-Foot Orthosis for Rehabilitative and Assistive Applications

During normal walking, there is significant power required in the ankle to propel the body forward near toe-off. In the case of the elderly or those with neuromuscular disorders, this may be unachievable. This research tracks the development of a wearable hybrid-passive ankle-foot orthosis mechanism in order to assist the human ankle during normal walking….

Cost and Lead Time Reduction of Replacement Piping Using Additive Manufacturing

Metal 3D printing has grown up from its research stage to the fabrication for a wide range of commercial functional applications. Metal 3D printing is now popular in industries to build and repair various mechanical components. This research mainly focuses on pipeline failures that result in increased maintenance budgets, overtime hours for service personnel and…

Propagation of Interictal Spikes in Epilepsy

Interictal spikes are typically regarded as a sign of epilepsy, although their precise role in epilepsy remains vague. This study explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of sequences of interictal spikes in a small patch of the cortex of an epilepsy patient. As hypothesized, interictal spike sequences were found to directionally propagate across the cortex consistently. This…

Expanding Gene Expression Tools in Cyanobacteria

Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, a marine strain of cyanobacteria is a great candidate as a cell factory for production of value-added chemicals, such as 2,3-butanediol due to its rapid growth rate. Quorum sensing (QS) systems allow for bacteria to be able to coordinate their behavior based on their population density. This system is less expensive…

Performing Phenotypical Studies For An Adaptable Multi-Modality pH-Sensitive Nanoprobe for Real-Time Monitoring of Engineered Cells and Tissues

A versatile technology for the assessment of cell and tissue viability in different culture systems remains a concern in the biomanufacturing industry. Through this project, the research team studied the phenotypical effects of a ratiometric pH-sensing nanoprobe for the noninvasive monitoring of cells and tissue activities. The research team evaluated the nanoprobe in 2D and…

Adsorptive CO2 Capture from Ambient Air by Zeolites

Carbon emissions are at an all-time high and there are ways to mitigate pollution but few viable carbon negative solutions. Zeolitic carbon capture is a cheap and highly effective method for removing carbon from the atmosphere. The focus of this study is on nanozeolites and measuring their effectiveness of CO2 adsorption from ambient air at…

3D Printing of Energy-Free Liquid Transport Microchips with Bioinspired Hierarchical Structures

Energy-free liquid transport has become an attractive research topic for a variety of industries due to its simplicity and its effectiveness. Traditional liquid transport is not ideal since it requires a lot of energy and regulation which limits the advancement of mechanical designs. This proposed research is motivated to address the barrier of creating multiscale…

Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Material with Metallic Structures via Electrically Assisted Stereolithography

Metallic structures on polymer surfaces are gaining a lot of interest due to their unique applications such as ICs, antennas, and metamaterials. Most additive manufacturing (AM) can only fabricate 3D objects using non-heterogeneous materials, and how to fabricate the polymeric objects with controllable metallic structures is a critical challenge in AM. In this work, an…

Assessing Technology Best Suited for Regenerative Medicine Biomanufacturing Biomonitoring

Regenerative medicine utilizes living cells to replace or repair damaged or diseased tissue, but the manufacturing process to get those cells is unlike typical manufacturing. Living cells are constantly changing and reacting to their environment, which in the case of cells isolated from their hosts, is completely unlike what they’re used to. Therefore special technology…

Synthesis on 2D Quantum RTe3 and Characterization to Confirm its CDW States

In the Rare-earth-Tri-telluride family, RTe3s [R=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, Tm] the emergence of Charge Density Waves (CDWs) has been under investigation for a long time due to broadly tunable (electrical) properties by either chemical substitution or pressure application. Elemental Rare-earth metal and Tellurium, purity 99%, was used in synthesis by…

Construction of Plasmid DNA for the Heterologous Expression of Ester Forming Enzymes

Developing a microbial system that increases the production of sustainable solvents like ethyl lactate has environmental and economic impacts. Prior bioinformatics analysis showed ATF1, ATF2 and LgATF1 to be potential genes. In silico and in vitro laboratory studies were performed to confirm their functionality in ester biosynthesis. PCR was used to amplify a small section…

Evaluation of Algae-Derived Carbon Adsorbents for Direct CO2 Capture from Ambient Air

One potential solution to the looming threat of radical global warming is carbon capture with algae-derived carbon adsorbents because of their low production cost. Once synthesized, algae-derived carbon adsorbents will be evaluated for their pore textual properties before their CO2 and N2 adsorption performances in both batch and dynamic columns are analyzed. The analysis done…

Detection of Irradiated Foods Packed in Plastic and Glass Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectrometry

Food irradiation is performed to improve the safety of foods by reducing pathogenic microorganisms. Many foodstuffs are irradiated to preserve and prolong their life span. Though a standard symbol exists, very few commercial vendors display it on consumer products. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers can be used to detect the paramagnetic centers that are created…

Flux Balance Analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for the Production of D-lactate

Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is a computational approach to simulate the flux of metabolic pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks in organisms such as cyanobacteria. COBRA toolbox is used to predict the growth rate and production of substances (i.e. lactate) in the presence of single or multiple substrates in a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Current results show…

MXene Particle Synthesis and Their Scalability

The objective of the research is to synthesize MXene (Ti3AlC2) nanoparticles of a few microns in lateral dimension, without surface defects for microscale patterning. The in-situ HF (LiF + HCl) was used to perform chemical etching of MAX (Ti3AlC2) phase. The anisotropic deposition of MXene flakes was obtained via combining 3D printing and capillary-induced deposition…

Real Time Visualization of Magnetic Field Lines for Educational Purposes

Being able to detect and visually map the magnetic field lines would be of interest for both educational and industrial applications. These magnetic field lines describe the direction of the magnetic force and the magnitude of the force on ferromagnetic, diamagnetic, and paramagnetic objects. The detection and visualization of magnetic field lines is conceptual. The…

Alexis Hocken

Characterizing Nanocomposites for Customizable Cartilage Replacements

The properties and characteristics of photocurable nanocomposites can be tailored to mimic those of various tissues and/or cartilage, allowing the bio-inspired synthetic material to replace them. The long-term goal of this project is to 3D print the replacements so they can be tailored to fit individual patients. Therefore, it is critical that the thermal, mechanical,…

Smith Pittman and Michelle Young.

Use of Rabbit Fecal Matter for Lignin Degradation in Wastewater Treatment Systems

This research investigates a method of biologically pretreating lignin using bacteria obtained from rabbit fecal samples, as rabbit diets consist largely of lignocellulose. Under anaerobic conditions, these microbes are expected to consume yard trimming such as grass and bushes with a high amount of lignin, producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and methane. VFAs are useful…

Online Prediction for Vision-based Active Pursuit using a Domain Agnostic Offline Motion Model

The use of a Long Short-Term Memory Network-based domain-agnostic predictive pursuit agent is proposed as an alternative to conventional methods such as Kalman Filtering. The empirical results from the pursuit-evasion game establish the superiority of the proposed framework as attested to by lower capture times. This active pursuit framework enhances the ability of autonomous vehicles…

Simultaneous Microscale Optical Spectroscopy and Thermoreflectance Analysis

This research will study temperature-dependent spectral properties at the microscale by combining a microscope setup for Microscale Optical Reflection and Transmission (MORT) that analyzes light spectrum and the Scanning Laser Thermoreflectance (TR) setup that measures temperature using the optical reflectance for simultaneous measurement of both properties. Previous research has been done with TR to analyze…

The Use of a Virtual Cane for Improving Standing Postural Stability

This study introduces a virtual cane (VC) device for improving standing balance. Unlike typical canes, VC does not provide any physical support but haptic feedback to help users adjust their posture. Human experiments (containing 3 identical sessions) were conducted to justify the benefit of using VC during postural control. Subjects were asked to perform quiet…

Study Examining Human Postural Stability with Perturbations Applied Utilizing Dual-Axis Robotic Platform

This study investigated the impacts of 2-dimensional oscillatory perturbations on human standing balance. A dual-axis robotic platform was utilized to apply oscillatory perturbations and evaluate the subject’s postural stability during quiet standing. Impacts of perturbation direction, amplitude, and frequency on postural stability were investigated by analyzing different stability measures, specifically center-of-pressure (COP) path length, Time-to-Boundary…

Ambient Ozone Removal Using Cement-Based Materials

Urbanization has increased air pollution in the lower atmosphere, thereby calling for the development of methods of active and passive air pollutant removal from the troposphere. Work was undertaken to characterize the air pollution reduction capabilities of a titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated cementitious material. The surface was exposed to known concentrations of O3. The system was…

Model-on-Demand (MoD) Estimation for Behavioral Intervention Optimization

This project explores the use of Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to model noisy, nonlinear time series data. MoD estimation has been examined for two applications: (1) a continuously-stirred tank reactor and (2) walking behavior from HeartSteps, a microrandomized study that aims to encourage physical activity. While the former demonstrates that MoD can be applied to noisy,…

Engineering High Yield Production of L-Serine in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Cyanobacteria have the potential to efficiently produce L-serine, an industrially important amino acid, directly from CO2 and sunlight, which is a more sustainable and inexpensive source of energy as compared to current methods. The research aims to engineer a strain of cyanobacteria that increases L-serine production by mutating regulatory mechanisms that natively inhibit its production,…

Electrically Assisted 3D Printing of PEDOT:PSS Film for Solar Cell Fabrication

PEDOT:PSS based solar cells are a promising renewable energy source. They have exhibited high energy efficiency while still maintaining stability. The problem with these types of solar cells is that they are not easy to produce in large quantities. Current methods of material deposition rely on spin-coating, which is acceptable for small-scale manufacturing but not…

Electrically Assisted 3D Printing of Perovskite Film for Solar Cell Fabrication

This research project aims to control the density and morphology of the 3D printed nanofilm for optimum energy conversion efficiency. To fabricate individual solar cell layers, an additive manufacturing (AM) process is used in conjunction with an electric field. Challenges include accurately controlling the parameters to produce an even density coating. In this project, printing…

Engineering Bacteria to Secrete Cellulases for Breaking Down Cellulose into Glucose

Cellulases are enzymes that are crucial for the breakdown of cellulose into glucose, the primary carbon source in bacterial systems. However, the current method of using commercial cellulases is very costly. Present work aims at engineering bacterial strains for efficient cellulase production. Bacteria was engineered for expression of beta glucosidase and the enzyme activity was…

Structural Beam Based Stereolithography for Rapid Continuous Additive Manufacturing

Conventional traditional manufacturing involves enormous waste materials and consumes a lot of energy and time. Additive Manufacturing technologies provide a sustainable manufacturing environment and possess the ability to produce parts with 3D complex geometric shapes directly from scratch. However, most additive manufacturing produces parts in a layered manner so that it is time-consuming for material…

TEM Image Simulations of Structural Dynamics on CeO2-supported Pt Catalysts

In time-resolved series of TEM images taken of supported nanoclusters in gas environments, it is observed that the nanoparticles can undergo dynamic structural reconfigurations that give rise to unique contrast features in the image. The purpose of this project is to develop a methodology for understanding how structural dynamics might give rise to experimentally observed…

Accurate Timing Reference Using GPS Signal and Arduino

As the backbone of many critical infrastructure systems, assured Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) is crucial to maintaining our national security. In the battlefield environment, the availability of devices that provide an accurate, synchronized timing reference is essential for unified execution of the mission. Research is being done to integrate a Global Positioning System (GPS)…

Determine Failure Mode and Bending Load Capacity of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Square Tubes for Design of Support Structure of Small UAS (Unmanned Aerial System)

Research was performed on the failure modes and governing equations for composite materials under tension and compression in the areas of local panel buckling, shear stress, compressive yield stress, crippling, and tensile yield stress. The research is focused on square tubes used in the main support structure of small UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). Testing was…

Directly Relating Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) Data to Membrane Conductivity during Neural Activity In Vitro

This research is concerned with analyzing a new type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) called magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) in an effort to be able to use it to directly detect neural changes. By measuring where electrical current is flowing through the brain, MREIT should be able to show which areas are more…

Kylie Welch and David Allee

Implementing Bio-Inspired Frequency Detection on an FPGA

Similar to how animals use signals of varied frequencies to detect and locate objects, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) will allow for an efficient way to analyze signals. Implementation of this fast, low-power method on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) will enable remote, autonomous object sensing and detection systems. With the advancements in technology, faster…

Adversarial Attacks on Autonomous Driving with Physically Realizable Patterns

Following the physical adversarial attacks faced by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), controllers learned using such DNNs with Reinforcement Learning (RL) approach are also vulnerable particularly in risk-sensitive areas such as Autonomous Driving (AD). This research aims to study such attacks on AD mainly in the Spatio-temporal domain in the presence of adversarial physical objects on…

3D Printed Jet-Based Cooling Heat Exchanger for Electronic Devices

This project explores the potential of a 3D-printed jet-based cooling heat exchanger, also called a 3D-printed jet cooler, to cool electronic devices. Unlike traditional metal-based jet coolers, this 3D printed jet cooler will be fabricated using polymers which considerably reduce the fabrication cost while still offering wide geometric freedom that would offer new designs and…

FPGA Powered Infrared Imaging of Hypersonic Missiles

This research project explores the applicability of low-altitude hypersonic missile detection using artificial intelligence (AI) implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ability to defend against hypersonic missiles depends on the ability to accurately detect them. Low-power FPGAs are a potential solution to this problem. Research into how well FPGA-based AI algorithms are able…

A Systematic Study of Pooled Testing Procedures for SARS-CoV-2

Testing is an invaluable method used to monitor and limit the spread of COVID-19. However, global shortages of reagents and instruments make it difficult to perform routine high-volume testing. Studies have shown that pooled (group) testing is an effective way of reducing the number of tests needed to diagnose a population. This study compares the…

Pandemic Agent-Based Modeling in a Learning Environment

The objective of this project is to design and model transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in a closed learning environment for the purpose of analyzing and comparing methods for alternative classroom configurations. In particular, an agent-based simulation model is developed with real-life class registration data from Cornell University to analyze the impact of splitting classes to…

Designing a Low-Cost and Power-Efficient DC-Biasing System for Reconfigurable Reflective Surfaces in the Terahertz Spectrum

The motivation behind the group’s research is to fabricate the physical structures for implementing a new type of frontier in wireless sensing and communication. To achieve this, a rugged yet easy-to-implement system to bias the antenna correctly is needed for reliable transmission of information. This build was specifically fabricated for a 160-element reflectarray antenna, but…

Lower Motor Neuron Degeneration Following Traumatic Brain Injury

This project aims to determine the extent that traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration and neurodegeneration within the cervical region of the spinal cord post TBI. The spinal cords were sectioned and slide mounted for immunohistochemical evaluation. Immunostains include morphological and cell-specific staining to detect neurodegeneration. Sections were imaged using microscopy…

Fabrication of Oxide-Inclusions in Liquid Metal

The goal of this work is to create a new class of multiphase liquid metal pastes with designable properties through the incorporation of solid and liquid additives. Liquid metals represent a unique opportunity due to their metallic properties and deformable nature. These liquid metals can be used to create a new line of cheaper and…

Size-Tunable Polymeric Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery after Traumatic Brain Injury

Five million people in the United States live with disabilities caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI can break down the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the membrane that regulates what enters the brain. While BBB breakdown is problematic, it provides a unique opportunity to use nanoparticles for drug delivery to the injured brain. This research aims…

Kelvin Tan

Algorithms for Maximum Power Point Tracking through Load Management

Load Managing photovoltaic (PV) system is proven to be an efficient systematic approach to extract the maximum available PV power. The direct-coupled load-managing PV system controls and matches the number of loads with the connected PV array to extract the maximum amount of power throughout the day. The project focuses on developing a feedback-based control…

Using Cyanophycin Production as a Screening Method for Cyanophycin Synthetase Activity

This project’s motivation is to determine a method of measuring the amount of Cyanophycin (CGP) produced in E. coli cultures that express native Cyanophycin Synthetase (CphA). CGP is an amino acid polymer with an aspartic acid backbone and arginine side chains. CGP must be extracted and purified from E. coli cell cultures before being measured…

Metabolite-based Cancer Vaccine to Modify Immunometabolism and Prevent Melanoma Growth in Aging Mice

Cancer vaccines generate robust antigen-specific anti-tumor responses by adjuvant-mediated induction of high energy-consumption state in immune cells. Unfortunately, this elevated and sustained energy immunometabolism mediated activation of immune cells is associated with toxicity and induction of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, because of immunosenescence due to aging, there is a reduced proliferation and potency of lymphocytes (T…

Weight and Moment Estimations for Small Fixed-Wing UAVs

Currently the weight of small UAVs cannot be accurately estimated by the commonly used empirical equations that were derived for full-sized aircraft. As weight and their related moments of inertia are critical for early clean sheet design. A tool is developed to estimate these values through rigorous stress and physics-based methods. This is done on…

Microneedles for Basal Cell Carcinoma

This project proposes a new method in delivering vismodegib, a chemotherapy drug that is taken orally for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC therapeutics in chemotherapy tend to suffer from systemic dosage, where the drug is injected intravenously or intramuscularly, which causes the drugs to indiscriminately affect the entire body. This experiment investigated…

Vibro-Thermal Device for Socio-Emotional Communication through Pattern Generation

Touch plays an essential social role in fostering and maintaining emotional communication in human relationships, which has changed due to the current pandemic. The research team proposes to create a haptic platform capable of generating vibrational/thermal haptic patterns individually and simultaneously. This device explores the social and emotional quotient involved during communication, which is absent…

Lauren Lossner

Interictal Spike Depolarization in the Neocortex: Relationship to Action Potential Inactivation

Evaluated how local voltage changes due to interictal spikes impact action potential firing using intracellular recordings and the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The Hodgkin-Huxley model showed inactivated action potentials being generated by large depolarizations. The Hodgkin-Huxley model confirmed the effect of large interictal spike depolarizations on action potential firing and inactivation. This supports the hypothesis that interictal…

Modeling the Complexity of Sankey Diagrams

In this project, the team is developing a model to quantify the complexity of Sankey diagrams, which are a type of visualization technique that shows flow between groups. To do this, the team created a carefully controlled dataset of synthetic Sankey diagrams of varying sizes as study stimuli. Then, a pair of online crowdsourced user…

Reducing Air Pollutants and Analyzing the Products of Nitric Oxide Conversion Over Photocatalytic Cementitious Materials

Societal development has created a significant rise in air pollutants, resulting in the need for a system that can assist in its reduction. Titanium dioxide, a photocatalytic material that is known to have depolluting capabilities, may be incorporated in or on concrete structures and used as a passive system for depollution. The purpose of this…

Developing Robust Defenses for Deep Neural Networks

As the use of deep learning in computer vision becomes integrated in many technologies including self-driving cars, electronic banking, and security systems, attackers are seeking to exploit weaknesses that are imperceptible to the human eye, but trick computers. This research explores more robust methods to train deep neural networks so that they are resistant against…

Electro-Spun Pretreatment Membranes for Heavy Metal Ions Removal

Pretreatment membranes can be utilized for a wide variety of filtration applications and can remove biological to inorganic foulants. A promising strategy to produce pretreatment membranes is through electrospinning, which creates nanoscale, nonwoven fibrous mats of polymeric materials with an exceedingly high surface area to volume ratio. PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) is the choice polymer due…

Testing Method of Soft Actuator

Elderly around the world have been diagnosed with mobility impairment due to various diseases that cause weak joints and muscles. The Kaiteki Project proposes a wearable hybrid robotic system that will assist and support persons in their daily routine. In order to determine if an actuator is acceptable to be implemented on to a person,…

Modeling Mechanical Properties of Fibrous, Polymer Scaffolds as a Function of Fiber Alignment

Musculoskeletal tissues, ranging from tendon to cartilage to bone, contains an extracellular matrix with unique fiber alignments and mechanical properties. Designing tissue engineered scaffolds that mimic these tissue properties is crucial for promoting proper healing after injury. This project will explore how mechanical properties of fibrous scaffolds vary as fiber alignment changes. Specifically, the mechanical…

Drone Security

The objective of the research project is to determine if an IR camera is capable of being mounted on a standard off the shelf DJI Spark drone. The first experiment will be to design and fabricate a housing to mount the hardware to the drone. The next experiment will have the IR camera system mounted…

Standard Technique Development for Rad Hard Electronics

With the increase in commercial space travel and companies attempting to go further into space, engineers are looking for ways to make electronics more resistant to ionizing radiation through radiation (rad) hardening. Current methods are mostly used by government contractors or niche design groups. This research seeks to develop open-source design procedures for creating robust…

Machine Learning Model for Classifying Colorimetric Assays

The focus of this study is to design a machine learning model that can classify alcohol test strips as positive or negative from cell phone photos taken under non-standard conditions. A software algorithm that can objectively determine results from colorimetric assays under non-standard conditions will improve the accessibility and portability of these strips, supporting point-of-care…

Synthesis of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) for the Purpose of Encapsulating and Releasing Tuberculosis Drugs

Drug delivery methods can be demanding on the patient and require them to administer drugs on their own. This is demanding and tedious on the individual. Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) are being experimented with as another alternative to drug delivery. With these COFs, the goal is to create a novel drug delivery mechanism that will…

Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Cement Beams with UV-Irradiated Polypropylene

Steel is used to strengthen concrete used for infrastructure. Concrete is composed mostly of cement, water, and aggregates. While most of these ingredients are sourced naturally, cement must be manufactured; a process that contributes a substantial amount of carbon emissions. In an effort to reduce the amount of cement used in concrete this research focuses…

Implementing creative ways of generating SQL Queries in a Data Exploration Session

The objective of this research is to develop creative ways of generating SQL queries during a Data Exploration session. This research aims to develop  efficient methods of collecting human interactions on databases. In order to achieve this, the research team has been trying and implementing various methods of Data collection. In this research, we explore…

Ligand-functionalized Microbeads for Preferential Binding of Methylated and Unmethylated DNA

In the previous study polymer microbeads (namely Amikabeads) were developed which contain a monomer (Amikacin Hydrate) and a cross linker (PolyEthylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether or PEGDE). This research is looking at the modification of these microbeads with different lipid ligands to modulate the hydrophobicity and their preference of binding towards methylated vs unmethylated plasmid DNA…

Solar Membrane Desalination

The project focusses on controlling scaling resistance in solar membrane distillation by monitoring the role of temperature, hydrodynamic conditions and concentration polarization. The researcher hypothesized that the maximum solar water production efficiency will be found in a medium between scaling resistance and high flux. The objectives of this research are characterizing the tradeoff between flux…

Germanium Dioxide: Development of Synthesis Techniques

Germanium dioxide has known bulk properties but has not been synthesized in a thin film form. Materials take on vastly different properties when they are on the nano-scale. These have been utilized in many ways such as batteries, insulation, medicine, transportation, and optics[1]. Previous research by the Wang Research Group[2] showed that molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)…

Aircraft Performance Data Acquisition

Considering the applications and popularity of electric fixed-wing UAVs are growing, it is critical to quickly obtain performance data on aircraft platforms to verify and optimize design. Research is conducted via the development of modular instruments onboard a miniature electric aircraft platform. These instruments are capable of measuring orientation, position, thrust, angle of attack, altitude,…

Atmospheric Water Capture and the Effects on Organic Matter

During natural water disasters, conventional water supplies may be inaccessible or unsafe for use. However, the atmosphere, which contains 3.4 quadrillion gallons of water, serve as an obtainable source for drinking water. For this technology to be widely applied, there must be an understanding of the impact climate and location have on water yield, energy…

Study of the Effects of Polydispersity on Vortex Tubes

This study explores polydispersity as a method of mitigating vortical flows. A cluster of particles with ranging sizes will be dispersed in the core of a vortex to observe the rate of dissipation and vortex evolution. One main motivation for this study is that vortices affect airport efficiency and persist in the atmosphere in the…

An Investigation on the Humans behind Robocalls In The Telephone Ecosystem

This study dives into the robocall ecosystem to find more about the humans behind spam phone calls and their economic models using robocalls. Spam telephone calls rampant occurrence shows a clear weakness of authentication and security in our telephone systems. Understanding more of how the people behind robocalls work within their environments will allow for…

Development and Validation of a Custom Soft-Body FEA Simulator for Rapid Prototyping

This study focuses on the development of a soft-bodied finite element analysis (FEA) simulator for the purpose of early phase prototyping. This simulator facilitates the rapid generation of design concepts in the creation of miniature soft-bodied robots. An array of designs of varying complexity will be tested using the simulator, and the most promising models…

Improving the Design Freedom and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber

Composite materials, specifically carbon fibers, are becoming more common in applications that require high tensile strength and modulus. Typically, carbon fiber is given structure by its long continuous fibers; however, the fiber reinforcements’ anisotropic nature often requires the fibers to be highly aligned to obtain advantageous material properties. This challenge imposes limitations on the fibers…

panCanSYGNAL

A web application has been developed to provide data and statistics for comprehensive gene regulatory network the deadly cancer malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The web application was enhanced to include additional experimental information from CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out outgrowth screens. The ultimate goal of the website is to function as a hypothesis knowledge base and hypothesis generator…

Pet Diagnostic Health Harness

The objective of this project is to design a product with the capability of gathering health diagnostics from a pet and relaying that information to its owners. The goal is to use a harness equipped with sensors that can analyze the animal’s heart rate, breathing rate, and temperature. Just as humans’ wearable technology impacts early…

Visualizing Spatio-Temporal Data

The research question is “How can Spatio-temporal data be visualized on a graphical plot within the Lampy project of the DataSystems’ Lab?” By using high-level Python libraries and data set software such as Matplotlib, time-series can be visualized. Likewise, spatial data can be visualized from the shapely library from GeoPanda, another similar software. However, if…

Environmental Perception Based Human Intent Inference in Autonomous Cars

Social Value Orientation (SVO) is a measure of ones’ preference to allocate rewards between themselves and another person.  Previous research in human modeling for autonomous driving has incorporated SVO estimation into their prediction models, however, SVO does not always dictate behavior.  The environment itself can influence behavior and even help to prime SVOs.  The research…

Developing an Automatic Potable Water Chlorinator in Response to Varying Water Conditions

Chlorination is the most common approach to disinfecting water, however in underserved communities lacking appropriate training and technology, it is often difficult to maintain the optimal concentration of chlorine. To increase the accuracy of chlorine dosing, an automated chlorine dispensing system is being developed using a programmable ball valve. The system is able to use…

Dye Filtration of Electrospun MOF Fibers

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the effect of polymer type on the filtration properties of electrospun MOF fibers. HKUST-1 and UiO-66 are both ultraporous metal-organic frameworks with known dye filtration properties which will be electrospun with the polymers polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone to compare their effectiveness at the dye filtration of…

System Support for Protecting Visual Privacy in Augmented Reality

As augmented reality mobile applications become more ingrained in everyday life, so do privacy concerns regarding these applications, the objective of the proposed research is the development of a framework that will protect users’ visual data while they are using such applications.The current model separates applications into two distinct processes network and visual, and then…

A Novel Use of GAN’s to Efficiently Simulate Fracture in Polymer Composites

Can a neural network be used to speed up finite element analysis in certain material simulations? The researchers built a pipeline to generate thousands of finite element analysis maps and preprocess the data to be used by machine learning algorithms. Multiple architectures have been trained on the data and their effectiveness was measured. Preliminary data…

Zion Basque works with faculty mentor Ryoyu "Fish" Wang

Ali’i CFG: Improving the Accuracy and Completeness of Control Flow Graphs on Binary Programs

With the growing use of software across the globe, the need for automated security auditing of software has never been more critical. One of the pillars that support automated security auditing techniques on software is the construction of control flow graphs (CFGs) for the target software without accessing the source code, a.k.a. binary programs. A…

Evaluating Collective Intelligence Strategies for Visual Detection

This work investigates how different methods of soliciting and aggregating input from multiple people best inform visual detection tasks. A crowdsourced experiment is developed which asks hundreds of study participants are asked to identify if an object is or is not in an image. Then, aggregation techniques such as majority voting, confidence weighted voting, and…

A Continuation of the Exploration of the Connection Between Particulate Composition and Mean Granule Size

Pharmaceuticals are an integral part of many peoples’ lives and while billions of dollars are poured into research and development little is known about the effect of process variables on the resulting particle size distribution. This project is aimed at discovering the link between different batch compositions of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP) and…

Constructing a Chlorine Sensor For Use In Developing Nations

Chlorination is the most common approach to disinfecting water, however, it requires a precise concentration level to work effectively. Determining how much chlorine to add is often difficult for these communities due to limitations in current single-use chlorine concentration testing methods. This research project involves the development and testing of a chlorine sensor that can…

Kristin Huber

Assessment of Injury Induced Blood Brain Barrier Disruption and Necroptosis via Development of Rapid Data Analysis Pipeline

Previous modes of image analysis were determined to be unfit for efficient usage in laboratory analysis tasks. Improvements were made upon the Java application created during Summer 2020 FURI, including heightened automation ability, cell counting, and overlaid signal characterization. The precision tools included in the customizable program allow for time efficient and accurate analysis of…

Ligament Breakup in a Sheer Flow

The goal of this research is to create a database of how a string of fluid, or ligament, breaks up into droplets due to an external flow. With this database, a model can be created to predict how the ligament breaks up in different types of external flow. In order to build the database, a…

Radiative Heat Transfer Measurement at Nanoscale Vacuum Gaps

Near-field thermal radiation across nanoscale vacuum gaps is predicted to achieve heat flux that exceeds blackbody limit. The objective of this project is to experimentally demonstrate the super-Planckian radiative heat transfer with a home-built thermal metrology that uses a laser-heated AFM bi-material probe. The temperature change of the silica microsphere attached to the probe tip…

Studying Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

Solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) energy conversion is seen as a viable option for efficiently converting sunlight to electrical energy. A selective absorber-emitter absorbs the concentrated solar radiation and selectively releases infrared radiation toward the photovoltaic cell. This radiation is then absorbed by the cell and converted to usable electricity. This project seeks to study the efficiencies…

Neural ODE Modeling for Many-Body Interactions

Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) present a new pathway for the reversible modeling of many-body systems, including those for the predictive analysis of particle interactions. Such modeling can determine destination trajectories for cancer cell coupling interactions in the extracellular matrix given respective start or end-points, assisting in targeting potential cell cluster convergence for preventative removal….

A Novel Approach to Perform Rank-one Updates in Machine Learning

Data proliferation has made Machine Learning (ML) algorithms ubiquitous. However, the fact that ML algorithms can suffer from significant rounding errors and affect their output has received little attention. Moreover, techniques for avoiding rounding errors tend to be computationally expensive. In this research, we address both these issues by developing efficient roundoff error-free algorithms for…

Utilizing 13C Tracing to Determine Metabolic Pathways

Understanding the metabolic pathways by which carbon substrates are assimilated is an important quest in metabolic engineering. The first experiment was performed to analyze the assimilation paths for labeled and unlabeled glucose in E. coli strains engineered for ethanol biosynthesis. Results indicated production of labeled ethanol from the labeled substrate. The second experiment was performed…

Standardizing Evaluation of Human-Computer Interaction in VR Olfactory Applications

Olfactory appeals in virtual reality (VR) systems create more immersive experiences ideal for medical, military, and extreme environment training. However, smell is still rather underdeveloped compared to visual, auricular, and haptic functions in VR because scents are complex in their chemical composition and relation to human emotion, spatial characteristics, and timing. This research project strives…

Atomic Dynamics of Platinum Nanoparticles on Cerium Oxide Catalysts

In time-resolved series of TEM images taken of supported nanoclusters in gas environments, it is observed that the nanoparticles can undergo dynamic structural reconfigurations which give rise to unique contrast features in the image. The purpose of this project is to develop a methodology for understanding how structural dynamics might give rise to experimentally observed…

Mixed Reality Hardware for Hands On Virtual Science Labs

Virtual reality and its integration into online education could make online lab courses better reflect an in person lab experience. There is a great opportunity for virtual remote education especially since the recent COVID pandemic. This project aims to develop a second iteration of a mixed reality device, SWISH (Shifted-Weight Interface of Simulated Hydrodynamics) which…

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Plastic Waste

The hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of waste plastics with algae and different catalysts will allow for the study of the effect of feedstocks on the HTL product distribution and help SRP convert plastic waste from electrical cable insulators into useful products. The research will address sustainability goals by investigating a solution for plastic waste and producing…

Evaluation of Algae-Derived Carbon Adsorbents for Direct CO2 Capture from Ambient Air

One potential solution to the looming threat of radical global warming is carbon capture with algae-derived carbon adsorbents because of their low production cost. After algae-derived carbon adsorbents have been synthesized, they will be evaluated for their pore textual properties before being pelletized for use in column breakthrough experiments. Once pelletized, their CO2 and N2…

Study the Mechanical Properties of Stereolithography 3D printed Polymer Nanodiamond Composite

The goal of this project is to study the mechanical properties of Nanodiamond (ND) fillers in nanocomposite resin for Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printers. In pursuit of this goal, three specific research objectives will seek to: (1) Study the mixing process of ND-OH in SLA printable acrylate resin, (2) Study the printing parameters for the nanocomposite…

Characterization of the CNT Agglomerate Interphase in a Three-Phase Nanocomposite

This research explores the inhomogeneous interphase properties of three-phase polymer matrix composites (PMC). PFQNM was utilized to detect an abrupt transition in reduced modulus from 8-10 GPa to 4-7 GPa between agglomerated CNT nanoparticles and surrounding epoxy matrix, respectively. Agglomerate stiffness is found to be related to CNT orientation and density. These results verify the…

RF (Radio Frequency) Micro-Coil Design for Small Animal MRI

The research question to be answered by this project would be whether the developed RF (radio frequency) coil could generate the frequency of 297 MHz that is required to operate a 7T MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner by the Larmor frequency. The development of the RF coil frame, the resonating structure and the interfaced circuit…

Understanding the Impact of the Frequency of Distractions on Cognitive Ability

It is critical to understand what frequency distractors may affect students’ cognitive abilities. The research focuses on understanding whether patterned or randomly-timed audio distractions have a more considerable impact on the students’ performance. Pre-existing data will be used to get a better understanding of the effect that audio stimuli have on the subjects’ cognitive abilities….

Adsorptive CO2 Capture from Ambient Air by Zeolites

Carbon emissions are at an all time high and there are ways to mitigate pollution but few viable carbon negative solutions. Zeolitic carbon capture is a cheap and highly effective method for removing carbon from the atmosphere. Breakthrough behavior is determined by measuring the CO2 & N2 adsorption of zeolite pellets in both batch and…

Control and Coordination of Multi-Robot Swarm Systems

Robot swarms show great promise in performing complex tasks in areas ranging from search and rescue to interplanetary exploration and yet controlling the behaviors of these swarms effectively is an open research problem. This research investigates the control of robot behaviors in a swarm system where robots learn to act in their environment using demonstrations…

Sabrina Cervantes Villa

The Effect of Deep-Level Reasoning Questions in Digital Learning Resources

Many online learning environments follow a structure that offers students digital learning resources to explore independently, followed by an assessment to test student comprehension of the resources. Student comprehension is affected by organization of information such as advance organizers or scaffolds. Previous research has shown that deep reasoning questions are one such discourse scaffold that…

3D Printing of Stainless-Steel Replacement Piping for Corrosive and Low-Pressure Environments

Corrosion is one of the foremost causes of stainless-steel (SS 316L) pipeline failures. In phase II, the corrosion performance of welded Selective Laser Melting (SLM) printed structure is studied along with the mechanical strength using tensile testing. Microscopic characterization is carried out using SEM and measurements of percentage mass loss, modulus, yield strength, and ultimate…

Engineering Safe Nanocomposite Materials: Role of Interactions Between Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanocomposite with Microcystis aeruginosa

Nanocomposites are the combination of multiple nanomaterials in a composite structure. Their great popularity has created a clear challenge in terms of nanosafety and risk assessment. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the toxicological effects to predict their potential health and environmental implications. Microcystis aeruginosa, freshwater cyanobacteria, was used to test a dose-response using concentrations…

Simulation Framework for Driving Data Collection and Object Detection Algorithms to Aid Autonomous Vehicle Emulation of Human Driving Styles

Identifying objects and estimating the volume enclosed by these objects is a critical index in determining the viability of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and is crucial for inculcating safety measures. Including the camera data, exploiting valuable information from high precision instruments like LiDAR has proven to be significantly effective in achieving 3D object detection and classification….

Low-Cost and Power-Efficient Terahertz Reconfigurable Reflective Surfaces for Imaging and Wireless Communications

The motivation behind the group’s research is to fabricate the physical structures for implementing a new type of frontier in wireless sensing and communication. While several aspects of the design are subjected to intense study, the focus of this project will be to implement a universal biasing system where the integrity of the signal is…

The Use of Spatial Audio as a Navigation Aid for the Visually Impaired

Spatialized audio gives the user the perception that there is sound coming from a source in a 3D environment. Meteor Studio has developed an algorithm that enables the spatialization of audio through two speakers, which is done by eliminating crosstalk generated from the two speakers. Crosstalk comes from unwanted interference from the opposing audio channel…

A Comparison of CRISPR/Cas-Derived Genome Editing Methods for hPSCs

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 systems are a vital gene editing tool for generating in vitro disease models. Since its debut, many CRISPR-derived editing techniques have been created to increase editing efficiency and fidelity. While these techniques all improve some aspects of functionality, there are insufficient resources for determining the optimal workflow for…

Determining the Effects of Sound Frequencies and Periodicities as Patterned Distractions on a Student’s Cognitive Ability

To provide students with an optimal education, it is critical to understand what traits of distractors affect their cognitive abilities. The research focuses on understanding what frequency at which audio distractions are presented have a greater impact on the students’ performance. Pre-existing data will be used to determine the effect that the frequencies of audio…

The Role of Pressure During Quenching on Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Silica Glass

An in-depth understanding of the shock-compression behavior of silicate glasses is vital to the development of plate glass used for armor applications. This research intends to increase our understanding of the shock-compression behavior of pure silica glass (SiO2) by answering the following question. Does the pressure applied during the quenching process of molten silica to…

A Benchmarking Framework for Data-Driven Compressive Sensing

The objective of the research is to develop a benchmarking framework with a unified API and benchmarks to allow researchers in this field to quantitatively evaluate new algorithms. To achieve fair and extensive comparisons, all data-driven methods are implemented in PyTorch, and are compared to state-of-the-art model-based methods that are implemented in MATLAB, with a…

Concrete Canoe Fabrication and Competition

The Concrete Canoe competition consists of student-led university teams who design, construct, present, and race a full-size canoe made of lightweight concrete. The ASU ASCE Concrete Canoe team will work for the semester to design a theoretical canoe to be utilized for the 2021-2022 competition. The team will revamp the concrete mix design, create the…

A Variable Thermal Feedback Mixed-Reality Haptic Interface for Virtual Fluid Interactions

The goal of this research project is to recreate haptic fluid sensations, specifically modeling the thermal properties of chemical fluid interactions. This research fits into the development of virtual remote chemistry education so that users could experience a chemistry reaction in virtual reality, and feel it in real life. In order to accomplish this, the…

Neighboring Single Atoms Catalyst Acceleration of Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants: An Ab Initio Study with Pt Catalyst

Organohalides are toxic materials present in water which are poisonous to living organisms. A common method for decontamination is though hydrodehalogenation using noble metal catalyst such as Pt and Pd. However, noble metals are expensive and scarcely present, thus their optimization needs to increase. This can be done by using single or neighboring atom catalyst…

3D Printing of Iron Oxide Based Anode with Bioinspired Structures for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become an attractive power source for a variety of electronic devices due to lightweight, high energy density, and multiple recharge capability. Conventional nanomaterial fabrication methods of LIBs anodes encounter a bottleneck in controlling geometric morphologies of microstructures, and such limitation causes low energy densities and converting efficiencies. This proposed research is…

Testing Method of Soft Actuator

Elderly around the world have been diagnosed with mobility impairment due to various diseases that cause weak joints and muscles. The Kaiteki Project proposes a wearable hybrid robotic system that will assist and support persons in their daily routine. In order to determine if an actuator is acceptable to be implemented on to a person,…

Optimizing Heat Transfer in a Rotary Drum

Rotary drums are tools that play a vital role for heat transfer in the chemical processing industry because they distribute heat uniformly to particles in a particle bed. The energy consumption for industrial-scale rotary drums is high and methods to improve the overall efficiency of rotary drums have not been fully explored. The purpose of…

Virtual Testing to Determine the Behavior of Orthotropic Materials

Composites are gaining popularity in the aerospace, automotive, and civil industries since their properties are attractive for products in these fields. The focus of this research is to develop a virtual testing framework that could be used as a predictive tool to characterize the behavior of structural composites including failure so that future designs using…

Incorporating Fluorescent Nanoprobe Emulsions in Hydrogels for Non-invasive Oxygen Measurement

The long-term goal of this research is to transplant encapsulated beta cells into a diabetic recipient and eliminate insulin injections. Beta cells succumb easily to hypoxic environments. To test oxygen levels non-invasively, we are using oxygen sensitive nanoprobes that give off a readable signal detected by using H-MRI. The thrust of the research so far…

Towards Automated Identification of Cancer Immunotherapy Targets: Prediction of Binding Affinity of T Cell Receptor and Antigens Using Graph-Guided Deep Neural Network

Cancer can be treated through immunotherapy, a personalized treatment to train a person’s own body to create an immune response towards cancer cells. The problem arises in understanding when a cancer cell is recognizable to the body as harmful. The researcher created a graph-guided neural network to predict cellular bindings given major histocompatibility complexes of…

Silver Analysis on Stainless Steel 316 Coated Aluminum Oxide Used for Water Systems on Spacecrafts

Stainless Steel 316L and its reaction with Ag+ were investigated because of its use as a biocide in potable water systems on spacecraft. The objective of this study is to stop the depletion of Ag+ by precoating the SS316 coupons with aluminum oxide, silver nanoparticles, and sulfidized silver nanoparticles. This is hypothesized to prevent depletion…

Photoacoustic Microscopy with Schlieren Optics to Provide Real-Time Imaging

Wide-field photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) images are challenging to display in real-time because these systems only gather one dimensional depth scans per laser pulse. Reconstructing these images is time consuming since it requires two-dimensional raster scanning. This delay limits both research and clinical applications of PAM. Schlieren optics is a technique that can visualize sound using…

Predicting Flow Function of Bulk-Solids and Powders at Different Size Ranges and Moisture Conditions

The purpose of the research is to model the flowability of bulk-solids/powders, thereby helping in the industrial handling and processing of such substances to be more efficient and sustainable. Flowability of varying grain sizes of glass beads with different moisture percentages were evaluated on the FT4 Powder Rheometer employing the shear cell test. The data…

Characterization and Modeling of Ankle Impedance During the Stance Phase of Walking

Understanding human joint mechanical impedance – a measurement reflecting stiffness, damping, and inertia – is a potentially useful metric for diagnostic purposes that can also aid in the design of new rehabilitative robotics. This research focuses on finding what factors related to human gait have an influence on the mechanical impedance of the human ankle…

Examining the Anti-Proliferative Properties of DUB Inhibitors in Primary Mesothelioma Cells

Mesothelioma is a rare and deadly cancer that typically consists of tumors in the pleural cavity of the lungs. A CRISPR/Cas-9 knockout screen was performed to study the effect of knocking out genes across the human genome on proliferation in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases were found to have a significant effect on…

Develop a 3D Printable Nanodiamond Polymer Nanocomposite Resin towards Fabrication of Low Cost Thermally Conducting Devices

Nanocomposite (NC) resins have demonstrated its capability to improve properties of parts fabricated by stereolithographic (SLA) additive manufacturing (AM) thus fostering their end-use application. Nanodiamond (ND) filled acrylate polymers have observed significant improvement in thermal conduction of the NC. However, studies on SLA AM resins involving ND have been rarely found in literature. The researcher…

Study on Human Postural Stability During Upright Standing Using Novel Two-Axis Robotic Platform

Quantifying human standing stability under 2-dimensional (2D) dynamically unstable environments is critical since those environments are related to falling and its consequences. This study investigates the standing stability under 2D compliance. The two-axis robotic platform was used to simulate different compliant levels in sagittal and frontal planes. Fourteen young healthy subjects were recruited. Participants were…

Emma Bonham works in the Keep Phoenix Beautiful Community Garden

Assessing Urban Agricultural Practices in the Desert Cities

Is there a mismatch between urban farmers’ perceptions of their farm’s environmental sustainability and its actual environmental impact? Focusing on the use of water and nutrients on each farm as described by the farmers through interviews, it is evident that there is some level of disconnect between ideals and practices. This project may aid in…

Design, Modeling, and Control of a Single-Axis Self-Balancing Platform

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are electronic devices that use a combination of at least an accelerometer and a gyroscope to measure position and orientation. The objective of this project was to design, construct, model, and control a simple single-axis self-balancing platform for the purpose of testing and comparing methods for modeling sensor…

Non-Toxic Nucleation and Passivation of Silver Nanoparticles on Stainless Steel for Biofouling Control

This project proposes to improve the long-term performance of silver-based surface coatings used for biofouling control on various surfaces. The research includes the generation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on stainless-steel, and their subsequent passivation by the formation of desirable forms of silver halides including Ag2S, AgBr and AgI. The Ag/functionalized-Ag structure is proposed to…

Utilizing Density Functional Theory to Compute the Efficacy of a Rippled Janus Structure for use in Optoelectronics

The search for more efficient and effective optoelectronics gives hope to find a breakthrough technology that can vastly increase the practicality of green technologies. Through the study of Janus, asymmetric, atomic structures a new novel structure can be found that exhibits favorable properties for optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Specifically, through the study of rippled, Janus, dichalcogenide…

Deuterium Metabolic Imaging of Physiological Levels of Glucose

The aim of this project is to identify literature in which supports the idea that Deuterium Metabolic Imaging (DMI) can be applied to detect normal physiological levels of glucose. There is already research that demonstrates detection of super-physiological levels of glucose in large glioblastoma multiform (GBM) brain tumors. However, we want to determine if glucose…

Intelligent Surfaces for 5G and Beyond Wireless Communications

In the modern era of wireless communication, beam steering is the pillar for efficient communication in 5G applications. Multibit Reflectarray antenna achieves reconfigurability by using RF switches (PIN diodes) and thus modulating the impinging electromagnetic waves to the desired direction of user with higher aperture efficiency. At present two-bit unit cell design is in progress…

Engineering High Yield Production of L-Serine in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Cyanobacteria have the potential to efficiently produce L-serine, an industrially important amino acid, directly from CO2 and sunlight, which is a more sustainable and inexpensive source of energy as compared to current methods. The research aims to engineer a strain of cyanobacteria that increases L-serine production by mutating regulatory mechanisms that natively inhibit its production,…

Microbial Engineering for the Production of Ethyl Lactate

Esters and their precursors are economically viable hydrocarbons, especially known for their biodegradable properties. With the aim of synthesizing these green chemicals through a greener process we chose a biocatalysis route. Spontaneity of esterification reactions was analysed through a web-based eQuilibrator tool by calculating their Gibbs free energy change. Simultaneous investigation was performed to mine for…

Flux Balance Analysis

Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is a computational approach to simulate the flux of metabolic pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks in organisms such as cyanobacteria. COBRA toolbox is used to predict the growth rate and production of lactate in the presence of single or multiple substrates in a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Current results show increased lactate…

Improvement of Uniaxial Testing Apparatus for Micro-Scale Material Systems

Common methods of testing mechanical properties of micro-scale systems need a collection of specialized parts that are costly and difficult to set up. A new uniaxial testing apparatus that has been proposed takes advantage of less costly methods such as 3D printing of a tensile fixture and image reference markers for accurate data acquisition. With…

Adventures of Stolen Credentials

Criminals in underground markets pose a huge threat to society by secretly sharing and/or selling account credentials from platform-to-platform in a short amount of time. With the number of account information being spread in these underground forums growing every year, to bring the percentage increase to a halt, this study will be investigating the pathways…

Creation of a Computational File for Calculating Drug Release from Degradable Spherical Gel Batch

Drug-eluting particles have been identified as a method of drug delivery capable of delivering steady local treatment over time. To address the need of adhering to strict drug delivery standards, this project will focus on creating a computational Mathcad file capable of identifying a particle batch’s mean and standard deviation that yield drug delivery within…

Development of A Photo-Responsive Moisture-Absorbent Composite for Atmospheric Water Extraction

Atmospheric water extraction technology, utilizing adsorbents to provide fresh water to tackle the crisis of water resource shortage, holds promise but currently suffers from excess required energy. To address power concern, a photo-responsive hybrid gel consisting of a hygroscopic material, a hydrophilic polymer-based hydrogel, and a photosensitive moiety are currently under development. The goal is…

Can Shocks Produced from Perturbed Bimaterial Interfaces be Used to Estimate Dynamic Strength?

The objective of this research is to perform careful experimental measurements of propagation of perturbed shock waves in metallic samples to estimate dynamic strength. Relationships derived from hydrocode simulations will determine optimum experimental geometries that can be used to carry out experiments in these geometries to validate direct numerical simulations of the tests. The findings…

How Center of Gravity Location and the Sizing of Control Surfaces Affect Aircraft Stability

The motivation behind this project is to investigate how to size an aircraft’s control surface in relation to the center of gravity for aircraft stability. Finding a working balance between these will then lead to finding the best design for a given mission. Multiple aircraft configurations were created in an aerodynamic data program called Vorlax…

Investigation of a polyether urethane-based polymer for promoting bone tissue healing

Interest in the field of tissue engineering is rapidly increasing due to its role in providing a platform for regenerative medicine and tissue repair solutions. In particular, there is a clinical need to create a solution for healing major bone breaks and defects in patients using tissue engineering methods. Polyurethanes (PUs) that are ether-based have…

Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Rapid Thermal Cycling

The objective of current research is to improve the rapid thermal cycling capabilities and the mechanical ruggedness of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) by investigating reactor geometries and cell supports. For this investigation, thermal management of the selected reactor geometry is optimized through computational fluid dynamics, and the resulting flame-assisted fuel cell (FFC) reactor setup…

Multi-Modal Communication Between Human and Robots through Virtual and Augmented Reality

The goal of this project is to enable multi-modal communication with human-robot teams. This study will demonstrate a way to incorporate spatial and temporal cues to enhance human-robot communication with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) support. The process is divided into three steps: setting up the environment so that the TeSIS (temporal spatial…

Development of the SmartPad System for Energy Expenditure Detection

Energy Expenditure (EE) is the energy organisms utilize to carry out their cognitive and physical actions. A mismatch between EE, energy storage, or energy intake can lead to a variety of diseases, and the purpose of this research is to develop a noninvasive medical device, the SmartPad, to monitor an individual’s EE under free-living conditions….

Aircraft Performance and Propulsion Data Acquisition

Analysis of propulsion efficiency and aerodynamic performance is not typically done for small scale aircraft in flight conditions. Determining such performance can influence design changes for the airframe and propulsion systems to deliver the best results for a given aircraft. The performance and efficiency of these systems can be determined by integrating custom and procured…

The Development of Geometries for a Passive Check Valve in Patients with Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a medical condition where an excess amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates within the ventricles of the brain. As CSF accumulates, it exerts pressure on the brain. The applied pressure arises from excess CSF. Current medical treatments for HCP are invasive, requiring macroscopic shunts. These shunts have high failure rates and must…

Investigation on the Adsorption of Selenium Oxo-anions on Alumina and Hematite Surfaces

Selenium, in form of oxo-anions – Selenate and Selenite, has been identified as a toxic substance present in drinking water. Researchers have found that metal oxides nanoparticles such as Hematite and Alumina are the adsorbent materials that can reduce selenium content by adsorbing Selenate and Selenite. The adsorbance capacity depends on many factors including configurations…

Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation Using Fresh Urine and Calcium-Rich Zeolites

Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a soil cementation technique that utilizes free urease enzyme to hydrolyze urea into carbonate ions; in the presence of calcium ions, calcium carbonate is precipitated. Fresh urine has been demonstrated to be a unique source of urea for EICP. However, a major concern is the ammonium ion byproduct. Zeolites were…

Investigating PEG-Polyurethane for Biomedical Applications

PEG-Polyurethane is being used for biomedical applications such as in catheters, heart valves and in tissue regeneration including bone. Improvements in the polymer’s properties are needed to specifically facilitate different types of clinical needs. This research aims to study the structure, function and key properties of Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-polyurethane for biomedical applications due to its…

Characterizing Cellular Response to Topological Features on a Nanoscale Utilizing Monolithic Quartz Contact Guidance Chips

The surface that cells grow on has a significant impact on their behavior. Studies have proven that cells orient themselves relative to topographical features even down to nanoscales, a phenomenon known as contact guidance. A micro/nanotechnology-based biotool called a monolithic quartz contact guidance chip aims to provide a standardized multiplexed testing platform for contact guidance…

Reproducibility and Extraction of Complex Hydrogel Geometry Fabrication in 3D Printed Injection Molds

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic islet cells which results in patients no longer generating their own insulin. Islet cell transplantation via macroencapsulation is a potential therapy to treat type I diabetes in the absence of chronic systemic immunosuppression. The Weaver lab uses synthetic hydrogels to fabricate macroencapsulation…

Effect of Iron-Impregnated Biochar on Water Contaminant Adsorption Capabilities

The objective of this project is to analyze biochar’s ability to purify water. It is hypothesized that biochar is effective in removing heavy metal contaminants with the addition of iron or other metal to further enable adsorption. It is also possible that raw biochar, after several iterations, may begin to accumulate iron and act similarly….

Replication of a Two-Axis Robotic Platform for Improved Ankle Characterization and Postural Stability Studies

Understanding the human ankle and neuromuscular disorders like multiple sclerosis and stroke are very important in field of rehabilitation and lower-limb prostheses. This research tracks the replication of a two-axis robotic platform in order to provide future research ventures such as, holistic characterization of simultaneous ankle impedance and simulating mechanical environments for postural stability. The…

Hyunglae Lee and Connor Phillips

Muscle Response During Multidirectional Interaction with a Variable Damping Controlled Ankle Robot

Robotic exoskeletons have tremendous potential for implementation in defense, industrial factories, and medical rehabilitation. However, current systems rely primarily on negative damping controllers which although safe, are very slow and unagile. In order to maximize the efficiency of exoskeletons, the damping of the system may change proportional to the acceleration of the user through a…

Observing Effect of Orientation, Location, and Threshold of TMS Coil on Motor Cortex Activation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation proven to have various clinical applications. This study examined the effects of (1) the TMS coil orientation during stimulation and (2) stimulation intensity on the magnitude of physiological responses to the stimulation of cortical regions involved in lip movements. The ultimate goal of the…

Zwitterionic Poly (Arylene Ether Sulfone) Membranes for Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Brine by Pervaporation

RO, a commercial process to produce freshwater from seawater produces concentrated brine solutions which cannot be further purified by RO. The aim of this research is to purify RO brine by pervaporation using zwitterionic poly (arylene ether sulfone) membranes. The researcher aims at testing the salt rejection and pervaporation performance of 25% and 50% charge…

Engineering Novel Microbead Encapsulated Three Dimensional Tumor and Stem Cell Models for Regenerative Medicine

Two-dimensional culture and entrapment of cells have been long studied using ECM-induced, cell-signaling induced, and biochemical-induced modes. But the significant efforts in recent years have demonstrated the advantage of three-dimensional cultures to better mimic the in vivo physiology of cellular structures and interactions. This project aims to engineer A375 NRAS-mutant melanoma and human Mesenchymal Stem…

Design and Optimization of Hybrid Fuel with Complex Bioinspired Geometries for Controllable Combustion Efficiency

More than 539 million tons of coal are consumed to generate energy each year. Due to the fabrication limitation, there is little research on the relation of combustion efficiency and geometric shape of coal briquette. Nowadays, 3D printing enables the fabrication of objects with complex microstructures. This research uses bioinspired microstructures to design a lightweight,…

Developing a Screening Method in Preparation for Directed Evolution of Cyanophycin Synthetase

This project’s motivation is to determine if the enzyme cyanophycin synthetase (CphA) can be engineered to incorporate non-natural amino-acids in its active site to produce novel variants of cyanophycin, a naturally made biopolymer. E. coli cell cultures expressing the enzyme CphA will be harvested alongside the Wild-Type. Different concentrations of canavanine, a non-natural amino-acid, will…

Modifying the Structure and Capacitive Performance of Holey Graphene by Microwave-Thermal Pretreatment

The purpose of this project is to research the effect of microwave pretreatment on the size, population and distribution of nanosized holes as well as the relationship between pretreatment conditions and electrochemical performance of reduced holey graphene oxide. By studying the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the nanosized holes…

Sonication-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of B4C Nanosheets for Fabrication of a Solar Steam Generator

A solar steam generator is a device that uses solar energy to produce steam in order to desalinate and purify water. More efficient and cheaper materials are needed to absorb sunlight to heat up the water and make steam. The researcher found a new layered material, boron carbide (B4C) can be exfoliated though bath sonication….

Design of High-Frequency Large Intelligent Surfaces Using Reflectarrays

With advancing technology, there has been a constant demand for increased cellular data rate and connectivity as number of connected users is expected to be 28.5 billion by 2022. This research focuses on design and implementation of large intelligent surfaces (LIS) using reflectarray antennas that can be implemented for 5G and beyond wireless networks. The…

Variable Impedance Control of the Robotic Ankle Joint

This study introduces a variable impedance controller for implementation in wearable robots. The controller applies a range of robotic damping and stiffness to the coupled human-robot system based on the “user intent.” A wearable ankle robot was used to test this controller, and human experiments were performed to understand and quantify the effects of the…

The Effects of Heat Treatment on the Drug Loading of Poloxamer Micelle Structures

The research motivation was to study the effects of heat treatment on the drug loading of poloxamer micelle structures. This project also investigated the stability of the heat-treated micelles in ideal, saline, and in vivo environments. The micelle structures were formed by heating the solutions at temperatures between 35-65℃ and studied using dynamic light scattering…

Characterizing Nanocomposites for Customizable Cartilage Replacements

The properties and characteristics of photocurable nanocomposites can be tailored to mimic those of various tissues and/or cartilage, allowing the bio-inspired synthetic material to replace them. The long-term goal of this project is to 3D print the replacements so they can be tailored to fit individual patients. Therefore, it is critical that the thermal, mechanical,…

Activation Energy Extraction of Electrodeposit Growth in Nanoionic Materials and Devices

This research project is focused on chalcogenide-based materials which function as an electrolytic layer in nanoionic devices. In depositing this electrolytic layer between metal electrodes, the movement of metal cations can be controlled electrically resulting in the growth of a metallic electrodeposit. The purpose of this research is to continue extracting the activation energy of…

Creation of AD-Relevant Isogenic Lines with CasMasTREE

Since 1901, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) claims at least 5.5 million individuals each year, making it the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Due to the pandemic, research has been limited to examining papers with methods that use a genome editing tool such as the clustered regularly inter spaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/cas9)….

Leveraging on Deep Learning to Predict the Optimal Beam Index Using Wireless Sensing Localization

The demand for communication networks with high capacity rate will be fulfilled with the recent developments of 5G technology. But then this technology utilizes mmWave systems, which has the following challenges; sensitivity to blockage and the large beam training overhead in large antenna array. This project turns to leverage machine learning to predict the optimal…

Making Portable and Less Expensive Fluorescence-Based Spectrometer for Monitoring the Quality of Olive Oil

Olive oil is a source of vitamins to aid in the proper growth and healthy growth of the human system, however, determining the quality of olive oil with a cheap technique has always proven difficult. Visual inspection of olive oil using the human eyes has been the usual method of inspection. Sometimes people go to…

A Novel Use of GAN’s to Efficiently Simulate Fracture in Polymer Composites

Can a neural network be used to speed up finite element analysis in certain material simulations? The researchers have built a pipeline to generate thousands of finite element analysis maps and preprocess the data to be used by machine learning algorithms. Multiple architectures have been trained on the data and their effectiveness was measured. Preliminary…

Design and Testing of 3D Printed Multimaterial Structures for Energy Absorption

The objective of this study was to design, manufacture and test multi-material 3D printed cellular structures under compression, to evaluate their suitability as energy absorbers. The role of wall thickness and aperiodicity was also evaluated. By combining both stiff and soft materials into one structure, the amount of energy absorbed was increased when compared to…

Developing an Automatic Potable Water Chlorinator in Response to Varying Water Conditions

Chlorination is the most common approach to disinfecting water, however in underserved communities lacking appropriate training and technology, it is often difficult to maintain the optimal concentration of chlorine. To increase the accuracy of chlorine dosing, an automated chlorine dispensing system is being developed using a programmable ball valve. The system is able to use…

Building a Portable and Less Expensive LED-Based Fluorescence Spectrometer for Evaluating the Quality of Food

Public interest in food quality and production has increased in recent decades. This relates to the development and increased industrialization of the food supplying chain. As a result, there is a demand for high-quality analytical tools to investigate food quality. The research aims at building a portable less-expensive LED-based fluorescence spectrometer for detecting the quality…

Risk Analysis and Efficiency Evaluation of Varying Terminal Connectors Use in Photovoltaic Systems

This research outlines the benefits, drawbacks, and risks of using different battery terminal connecters in photovoltaic systems; in relation to the Shonto Solar project. Based on initials findings from an FMEA analysis of residential PV systems, it can be concluded that electrical connecters pose the highest risk of failure. Identifying preventative measures against failure modes,…

Developing a Solar Powered Automatic Chlorine Sensor For Use in Developing Nations

Chlorination is the most common approach to disinfecting water, however it requires a precise concentration level to work effectively. Determining how much chlorine to add is often difficult for these communities due to limitations in current single use chlorine concentration testing methods. This research project involves the development and testing of a chlorine sensor that…

Study of the Interaction of Vortex Tubes with Suspended Dust Particles

Vortex stability is a key area of interest. Vortical flows over aircraft wings at high angle of attack can enable the aircraft to perform maneuvers that are impossible otherwise. On the downside, vortices shed by aircrafts, the so-called wingtip vortices, are one of the main factors in limiting airport efficiency and induce contrail cirrus that…

Target Detection Using Algorithmic Matter

Synth cells are micro-scale robots with limited computation power and memory, but can work together to perform complex tasks. It has been shown that synth cells can converge to a specific target in a cyclic system, by testing different policies and communicating with each other. This work will show how this model resembles that of…

Risk Analysis of Antibiotic Resistant Genes Transferred to Raw Vegetables via Land Application of Biosolids

In agriculture, various forms of recycled water are utilized to compensate for the scarcity of freshwater, including wastewater reuse in the form of biosolids. However, biosolids pose risks to human health and the environment due to contaminants such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and their associated genes. This research determines the risk of exposure to antibiotic resistant genes in raw vegetables transferred via…

Rapid Assessment of Geographic Information Systems(GIS) to Mini-Grids

Off-grid electrification strategies, including mini-grids, are needed to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 of affordable, clean, and modern energy for all. The design of these mini-grids usually takes several months and typically focuses on the sizing of generation assets only. This research is aimed at creating a comprehensive approach to rapidly access and…

The Development of Geometries for a Passive Check Valve in Patients with Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a chronic, congenital neurological disorder. Faulty arachnoid granulations inhibit the draining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) across the interior subarachnoid space leading to an accumulation of CSF in the ventricles. Current treatments for HCP involve macroscopic shunts to lower intracranial pressure, but about 50% of these fail within two years of implantation. To…

Decreasing Water Usage and Increasing Income for Vietnamese Small Farmers: Modeling Plant Stress with Handheld Infrared Thermometers

The EPICS (Engineering Projects in Community Service) Vietnam Smart Ag team is designing a handheld infrared device to aid small farmers with their irrigation practices in order to reduce water waste and increase annual income. This research serves to provide essential background for the project by investigating the relationship between canopy temperature, CWSI (crop water…

Learning and Sampling from the Causal Graph of Multi Categorical Distributions Via the Generative Adversarial Network

Machine learning is being used to solve many problems, trying to generate multi categorical data is one of the challenges the researchers faced. The researcher team has proposed a new method to solve this specific problem based on a previous structure and tried to examine if the new method is superior by using multiple metrics…

Understanding the Effects of Gait Adaptation from the Combination of Visual and Split-Belt Distortion

Split-belt distortion is one method of increasing the effectiveness of traditional treadmill rehabilitation, where the patient recovers more quickly through targeted rehabilitation of their paretic leg. Visual distortion has been used in previous studies to greatly impact the effectiveness of gait rehabilitation through visual modulation. Kim et. al. 2012 published a similar study on the…

Characterization of the CNT Agglomerate Interphase in a Three-Phase Nanocomposite

This research explores the inhomogeneous interphase properties of three-phase polymer matrix composites (PMC) using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM) technique. An abrupt transition in reduced modulus from 6-10 GPa to 4-7 GPa was identified between agglomerated CNT nanoparticles and surrounding epoxy matrix. These results verify the potential for nanofillers to influence bulk matrix properties and…

A Benchmarking Framework for Data-Driven Compressive Sensing

The objective of the research is to develop a benchmarking framework with a unified API to allow researchers to quantitatively evaluate new compressive sensing algorithms.To achieve fair and extensive comparisons,all data-driven methods are implemented in PyTorch,and are compared to state-of-the-art model-based methods with a variety of dataset and parameter setups.The CSGAN algorithm was reimplemented in…

Molecular Dynamic Simulations on Shocked Silica Glass

It is believed that a relationship exists between the cooling rates of molten glass and properties during high pressure shock. To test the hypothesis, LAMMPS molecular dynamic simulations was carried out on glass. The glass was melted, cooled at different rates, then subjected to shocks of various pressures. From experiment no statistically significant relationship was…

The Effect of Deep-Level Reasoning Questions in Digital Learning Resources

Previous research has shown that student comprehension is affected by organization of information, such as deep reasoning questions used as scaffolds. This study investigates the deep reasoning question effect with digital learning resources. Online participants will complete a pre-test, followed by a chapter of text focused on energy conversion. This will be followed by a…

Develop a 3D Printable Nanodiamond Polymer Nanocomposite Resin towards Fabrication of Low Cost Thermally Conducting Devices

Nanocomposite (NC) resins have demonstrated its capability to improve properties of parts fabricated by stereolithographic (SLA) additive manufacturing (AM) thus fostering their end use application. Nanodiamond (ND) filled acrylate polymers have observed significant improvement in thermal conduction of the NC. However, studies on SLA AM resins involving ND have been rarely found in literature. The…

Directed Evolution for Biological Sensors

Complex synthetic biology methods demand the integration of continuous culture, directed evolution, and positive/negative selection methods. To achieve this in a single platform, the research team built an open source multiplexed bioreactor (eVOLVER) and modified it to function as a directed evolution system. Modifications include a turbidostat, for continuous feed of bacteria into experiments, and…

Ligament Breakup in a Sheer Flow

The goal of this research is to create a database of how a ligament, or a string of fluid, breaks up into droplets from an external flow. To create a model of this breakup, different parameters of the ligament will be changed, simulated, and analyzed. By creating this database, it makes further research feasible because…

Phage Assisted Continuous Evolution (PACE) with PhiX174

Phage assisted continuous evolution (PACE) is the most current and advanced method of protein engineering, allowing for accelerated development and complex functions. The research team sought to explore opportunities for PACE with a new phage, PhiX174 and new mechanisms of positive and negative selection. For positive selection, Gene H was chosen because previous literature shows…

Synthesis of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) for the Purpose of Encapsulating and Releasing Glaucoma Drugs

Drug delivery methods can be demanding on the patient and require them to administer drugs on their own. This is demanding and tedious on the individual. Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) are being experimented with as another alternative to drug delivery. With these COFs, the goal is to create a novel drug delivery mechanism that will…

Practical Applications for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

The research is aimed at exploring diverse applications of fluorescence spectroscopy. Using a portable inexpensive (<$ 20.00) UV/VIS/IR optical spectrometer system designed by the SciHub laboratory, the research focused on the development of a fluorescence instrument that can detect melanoma skin cancer in humans. The ideal test samples are not used due to the difficulty…

Three-Dimensional Fracture Analysis of Viscoelastic Pavement Materials Using the Generalized Finite Element Method

Pavements are among the key transportation infrastructures that department of transportation agencies spare a significant part of their budget to build and maintain. There is a need to better understand cracking in asphalt mixes used in majority of pavements. The Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM), provides a computationally efficient platform for simulation and solution of…

3D Printing of Stainless-Steel Replacement Piping for Corrosive and Low-Pressure Environments

Corrosion is one of the foremost causes of stainless-steel (SS 316L) pipeline failures. Process water containing salts and ions reacts with surfaces causing pitting corrosion leading to frequent failures. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) printed SS 316L could be the potential improvement for quicker turnaround time and corrosion performance. Here, the corrosion performance of SLM printed…

Extending the Use of a Portable Spectrometer to Measurement of Photo-Luminescence

The research focused on designing a variant of a portable device (spectrometer) that can possibly help in identifying the nature of an object/substance. For example, identifying whether someone’s skin is cancerous or whether a household supply has gone bad. It was revealed that photoluminescence, a potential means of anomaly detection, is actually feasible in a…

Object Detection With Sensor Fusion and Embedded Systems

As the technology available for autonomous vehicles advances, car manufacturers are looking for ways to implement Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS) economically. Both in terms of cost and energy used. This is the motivation that leads into investigating embedded systems to create an ADAS using sensor fusion and deep learning. A system using a NVIDIA Jetson…

Real Time Multimodal Classification for Social Media Notifications

Aim of this research is to create a model that can take either image, text or both to classify the content of the message into different categories in real time. In the past other researchers tried early, late and common space fusion to solve similar problem. In this research model behaves as, if image input…

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Waste Sorting Systems

The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into waste sorting systems. The functionality, strengths, limitations, and applicability of AI in waste sorting systems was investigated, and a representative of a prominent AI waste sorting company was interviewed. Based on the findings, an optimized 3D model of an…

Experimental Study of Optical Force Measurement Techniques

The objective of this project is to experimentally measure the optical force reflected by a sample using two methods of measurement. One tuning fork-based and one laser-cantilever optical force measurement system were developed in order to quantify the optical force by two means: an oscillating probe from which distinct frequencies can be measured, and a…

Predicting Flow Function of Bulk-Solids and Powders at Different Size Ranges and Moisture Conditions

The purpose of the research is to model the flowability of bulk-solids/powders, thereby helping in the industrial handling and processing of such substances to be more efficient and sustainable. Flowability of varying grain sizes of glass beads with different moisture percentages were evaluated on the FT4 Powder Rheometer employing the shear cell test. The data…

Development of A Photo-Responsive Moisture-Absorbent Composite for Atmospheric Water Extraction

Atmospheric water extraction utilizing adsorbent to provide fresh water shows promise but currently suffers from energy intensive. To address power concern, a hybrid adsorbent consisting of a hygroscopic material, a hydrogel as reservoir and a photo-responsive agent will be designed. Optimized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel network has demonstrated water uptake of 22 g/g at room temperature and…

Towards Automated Identification of Cancer Immunotherapy Targets: Prediction of Binding Affinity of T Cell Receptor and Antigens Using Graph-Guided Deep Neural Network

Cancer can be treated through immunotherapy, a personalized treatment to train a person’s own body to create an immune response towards cancer cells. The problem arises in understanding when a cancer cell is recognizable to the body as harmful. The researcher created a graph-guided neural network to predict cellular bindings given major histocompatibility complexes of…

Novel Solid Fuel Fabrication using Direct Ink Writing based Additive Manufacturing

Coal is one of the largest sources of energy consumption in the world. However, current manufacturing methods have become increasingly difficult in meeting the requirements of fuel material fabrication in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. Additive manufacturing demonstrates advantages in building three-dimensional (3D) objects from scratch. The proposed research is to establish a…

3D Printing of Iron Oxide Based Anode with Bioinspired Structures for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become an ideal power source for electronic devices due to their high energy density and recharge capability. Conventional fabrication methods of LIBs anodes encounter a bottleneck in controlling geometric morphologies of microstructures, and such limitation causes low energy densities and converting efficiencies. This proposed research is motivated to address the current…

Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation Using Fresh Urine and Calcium-Rich Zeolites

Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a soil cementation technique that utilizes free urease enzyme to hydrolyze urea into carbonate ions; in the presence of calcium ions, calcium carbonate is precipitated. Fresh urine has been demonstrated to be a unique source of urea for EICP. However, a major concern is the ammonium ion byproduct. Zeolites were…

Violin Vibrato Video Imaging: A Novel Method to Generate Frequency Iterations Using Convolutional Neural Networks

The violin vibrato is an artistic modulation of a violin’s pitch that gives the tone of the instrument a desired aesthetic effect. Using computer vision techniques, the purpose of this research is to analyze video and audio of a violin’s hands. The audiovisual data will be fused together to generate a more complete waveform to…

Fast Growing Cyanobacterial Strains for Biochemical Production

Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs that are used and studied for the production of sustainable biochemicals but are not typically used for large scale production because of their low growth rate compared to other cells, such as E-coli. Two newly discovered fast-growing strains of cyanobacteria were studied, Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 11901, to verify their capability…

Electrospun Pretreatment Membranes

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a well-researched technology among the pressure driven processes to produce potable water and RO membranes are susceptible to fouling that hinders the efficiency. Therefore, this work aims to fabricate hydrophilic pretreatment membranes by blending two polymers via dual electrospinning process to prevent the effects of fouling. These membranes were subjected to…

Design and Optimization of Hybrid Fuel with Complex Bioinspired Geometries for Controllable Combustion Efficiency

More than 539 million tons of coal are consumed to generate energy each year. Due to the fabrication limitation, there is little research on the relation of combustion efficiency and geometric shape of coal briquette. Nowadays, 3D printing enables the fabrication of objects with complex microstructures. This research is motivated to design the lightweight, high…

Multi-modal Communication Between Human and Robots through Virtual and Augmented Reality

The goal of this project is to enable multi-modal communication with human-robot teams. This study will demonstrate a way to incorporate spatial and temporal cues to enhance human-robot communication with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR)  support. The process is divided into three steps: setting up the environment so that the TeSIS (temporal spatial inverse…

SCARLESS Sample Return

SCARLESS is a rover design that utilizes helically grousered wheels to traverse the unknown terrain of small bodies in the solar system. In one direction of travel, these wheels act as screws and are effective in a powdery regolith environment. In the other direction, they act as normal wheels and are robust to rocky terrains….

Investigating PEG-Polyurethane as the Basis of Bone Scaffolding Technology

Bone scaffolding technology assists in the repair of major segmental bone injuries by mimicking the structure and function of the natural bone extracellular matrix. Potential for design improvement can be made through various polymeric materials to provide more control over its biocompatibility and other mechanical properties. This research aims to study the structure, function and…

Investigating the Impact of Environmental Features on Multi-Agent Communication

Traditional reinforcement learning methods have been challenging to apply to multi-agent settings, thanks to the nonstationarity of the environment, until recently. This project aims to employ such multi-agent RL methods to understand how communication is learned between multiple agents. Specifically, the project aims to investigate what features cause effective communication protocols to be learned by…

Adaptable Multi-Modality Nanoprobes for Non-Invasive Real-Time Monitoring of Engineered Cells and Tissues

A versatile method for assessing cell and tissue viability in different culture systems remains a concern in the large-scale biomanufacturing industry. In this project, the research team utilizes the advantages of nanotechnology to noninvasively monitor the activities of cells and tissues. The team have successfully tested the effectiveness of the nanoprobes in 2D and microcarrier…

Engineering of a Microbial Host for the Production of Aromatic Chemicals

Many valuable chemicals utilized in society, such as medicines and cosmetics, have an aromatic structure and traditionally require many unsustainable components in production. Obtaining aromatic carbon instead from biomass would divert waste and pave the way for the sustainable production of many value-added chemicals. One method of utilizing biomass for this purpose is through the…

Effect of Particle and Environmental Variables on Flowability of Granular Materials

The purpose of this research is to attempt to design a set of characterization tools to relate granular material physical properties to their performance properties. Different forms of organic materials were ground into a granular form and individually put into a Freeman FT4 Powder Rheometer. This rheometer then measured the physical and performance properties of…

Visual and Output-Based Improvements of a MATLAB Program for Dynamic Light Scattering Applications

The research motivation was to improve a MATLAB program that provided correlation coefficient and size distribution outputs for a sample run through a DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) machine. Research methods included writing code to enhance output visualizations, determining factors that decreased the run time while maintaining output accuracy, and finding limitations of the model. It…

System Support for Protecting Visual Privacy in Augmented Reality

As augmented reality mobile applications become more ingrained in everyday life, so do privacy concerns regarding these applications, the objective of the proposed research is the development of a framework that will protect users’ visual data while they are using such applications. The current model separates augmented reality application in the network process and the…

Assessment of Injury Induced Blood Brain Barrier Disruption and Necroptosis via Development of Rapid Data Analysis Pipeline

The goal of the project completed by the researcher was to establish a Java program that aids in the efficiency and accuracy of traumatic brain injury (TBI) scan analysis. Current modes of completing analysis were time consuming and imprecise. Precision tools involving individual pixel analysis were implemented to optimize the program for Horseradish Peroxidase staining…

Improvements on the design of spinneret extruder

The objective of this research is to design of spinneret (extruder) that can consistently produce small diameter carbon fibers (CF) using the island-in-the-sea configuration.

Mechanism of NOx Conversion Over Photocatalytic Cement

Constituent(s) found in cement that may impact the production of nitrous oxide. Understanding what these materials are may gain perspective on how to mechanism for avoiding nitrous oxide production.

Microjet and Vibration Assisted (MVA) Fluidized Bed

A novel Microjet and Vibration Assisted (MVA) fluidized bed, that enhances the fluidization quality of nanosized particles by increasing the fluidized bed height, is used to enable improved control of CO2. Testing is performed by examining the use of different operating modes of the MVA system, including superficial gas flow (a)alone, (b) with vibration, (c)…

Sensing and Controls of an Assistive Knee Exoskeleton

Assistive exoskeletons are an increasingly valuable rehabilitation tool for patients with neurological damage. However, high level assistive control of exoskeletons remains a challenge. Many different sensors must work in concert to both control the exoskeleton, and determine the intention of the human wearer. This project implements an advanced sensor system and control scheme on a…

Efficient Plant-Health Analysis Through Cost-Effective Image Processing With Broad Applications

Traditionally, farmers would sample their crops by sectioning their land and running sample tests to ensure the productivity of their crops. Not only this method is time-consuming and costly, it also comes with inaccuracies as it would be impossible to cohesively analyze every single plant.

Pretreatment membranes to prolong the lifetime of reverse osmosis membrane

Pretreatment membranes can be utilized to prolong the lifetime of reverse osmosis membranes and to remove biological and inorganic foulants from water feedstocks. A promising strategy to produce pretreatment membranes is through electrospinning, which creates nanoscale, nonwoven fibrous mats of polymeric materials with a very high surface area to volume ratio. The characteristics of the…

Preparing a method to measure near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces

The following research project involves preparing a method to measure near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces, and then extracting real data measurements of such heat transfer. This will be done through a complex system in which the deflection of a sphere tipped bi-material cantilever will be tracked as it transfers heat to a…

Health Optimization of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Mutant for Microbial Electro-Photosynthesis

The primary objective of this research is to optimize the cell health of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant lacking photosystem II used in Microbial Electro-photosynthesis (MEPS), where electrons are delivered to photosystem I via an electrode. Currently, high-intensity light exposure is suspected of affecting cell viability, and the utilization of glucose as an organic carbon…

Aperiodic Surface-Based Structures for Additive Manufacturing

The motivation of this research project is to develop a method to design aperiodic surface-based structures for additive manufacturing. Once the designs are created their behavior will be studied using compression testing. First, a program will be written to enable the 3D geometry files to be tested, then the structures will be 3D printed and…

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep-brain-stimulation (DBS), which is a clinical intervention for Parkinson’s disease, research was done on development of a system which would use cerebral blood flow rates and their changes to optimize the efficacy of stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) and symptom treatment. In a rodent model, blood flow changes in both the cortical motor and…

AIChE Chemical Engineering Car – 2020 Western Regional Conference

ASU’s Chemical Engineering Car (ChemE Car) Team is competing this semester at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Western Regional Conference. Our aim is to power and stop a small autonomous vehicle using only chemical reactions and supplementary electronics. Our vehicle generates electricity using Peltier modules (thermo-electric semiconductor tiles) between hot and cold reservoirs….

Project RealWheel

A product design experience for our team, and a STEM challenge designed to sustain curiosity, inspire responsibility for learning, and keep the instructor’s workload in mind. STEM standing for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Project RealWheel leverages high-quality instruction and novel engineering to aid STEM instructors in delivering a powerful learning experience for K-12 students.

Arteriovenous Malformations

Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) are tangles of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the brain, that disrupt blood flow and can cause irreversible brain damage. Treating AVMs is currently flawed, in that embolization occurs while the AVM is being supplied with blood, no effective plug is formed, and embolization is not complete. By designing an…

Liquid-Fueled Micro-Combustors for Portable Power Generation

Combustion in microscales have received extensive interest in the past decade due to up to 100 times higher energy densities of hydrocarbon fuels as compared with those of the conventional batteries. Thus, there has been increasing interest in utilizing the high energy of hydrocarbon fuels in portable power generation systems. One method of generating electricity…

Underwater Robotics

Underwater Robotics at Arizona State is designing and constructing an autonomous robot that can navigate and manipulate objects underwater. Building this robot has allowed team members to create value in the community and themselves by exploring new underwater navigation systems and improving their design skills. The result of building this robot will allow for members…

SolarSPELL BMET Library

Across the world, clinics and hospitals receive donated medical equipment. Oftentimes, the donated equipment has no user or repair manuals, and thus are unusable in places that most need it. The SolarSPELL, which stands for solar-powered educational learning library, is an offline digital library that provides a curated set of information that can be accessed…

SolarSPELL BMET Library

Across the world, clinics and hospitals receive donated medical equipment. Oftentimes, the donated equipment has no user or repair manuals, and thus are unusable in places that most need it. The SolarSPELL, which stands for solar-powered educational learning library, is an offline digital library that provides a curated set of information that can be accessed…

SolarSPELL BMET Library

Across the world, clinics and hospitals receive donated medical equipment. Oftentimes, the donated equipment has no user or repair manuals, and thus are unusable in places that most need it. The SolarSPELL, which stands for solar-powered educational learning library, is an offline digital library that provides a curated set of information that can be accessed…

SolarSPELL BMET Library

Across the world, clinics and hospitals receive donated medical equipment. Oftentimes, the donated equipment has no user or repair manuals, and thus are unusable in places that most need it. The SolarSPELL, which stands for solar-powered educational learning library, is an offline digital library that provides a curated set of information that can be accessed…

SolarSPELL BMET Library

Across the world, clinics and hospitals receive donated medical equipment. Oftentimes, the donated equipment has no user or repair manuals, and thus are unusable in places that most need it. The SolarSPELL, which stands for solar-powered educational learning library, is an offline digital library that provides a curated set of information that can be accessed…

From Tattoos to Microchipping: Perceptions and Attitudes Around Body Modification

Socially Attentive Autonomous Vehicles

The computational cost of determining the action sequence in high traffic areas such as changing lanes on a highway or merging into lanes can be computationally costly. Rather than computing the Nash Equilibrium on all the cars in the environment, suppose the Nash Equilibrium was computed pairwise rather than on the whole environment. This would…

Ant-Inspired Control Strategies for Collective Transport by Dynamic Teams with Temporary Leaders

Ant groups often work together to transport food and materials back to their nests. In some cases, the group exhibits leader-follower behaviors where a single ant guides the entire group based on its knowledge about the destination. The leader role is occupied temporarily by an ant until it is replaced by another ant with new…

Learning Deep Neural Interaction Policy for ExoSkeleton Control

The purpose of this research is to develop a deep-learning-based approach to control a custom-built hip exoskeleton. A key component is to leverage learning-based techniques to adapt across different walking behaviors among multiple users. At the core, learning from demonstration (LfD) is used to extract the inherent motion pattern from the user demonstrations during training. …

Kinetics of Dynamic Damage Growth in Metals from Characterization and Simulations of Shock Loading Experiments

Understanding the mechanisms of damage evolution (spall) in metallic materials undergoing shock loading is key to predicting the performance of armor systems. Simulations of polyhedral voids will be performed using finite element models to investigate material and geometric effects on the growth behavior of these voids. Results will be compared to geometric and crystal orientation…

Particle Entrainment in Convection Scenarios

In this study, dust entrainment and aerosol dynamics within the formation of dust devils are investigated numerically. Particles lying on the boundary are resolved in a periodic Rayleigh-Benard convection to investigate details of entrainment in scenarios analogous to the atmosphere. The details provided by the high-fidelity platform are powerful tools develop models of dust emission…

Multiple-channel Signal Detection in the Presence of Phase Distortion

Sensor networks are important in security and environmental remote sensing applications, including remote detection of air, space, surface, or underwater vehicles and natural resource deposits. This research has established that the performance of multi-channel signal detectors is invariant across several classes of signals, including Gaussian and digitally modulated signals in noise. It is also quantifying…

Investigation into regeneration methods of desiccants for vacuum desiccant cooling

Personal cooling has many medical, defense, industrial, and recreational uses. Many methods being used are heavy, cumbersome, and uncomfortable. Vacuum desiccant cooling has the potential for being a lightweight, energy-efficient, and highly controllable cooling technology, but is limited by the desiccant being saturated with water over time. The purpose of this research is to study…

Efficient Methodology for Assessing and Improving Secure Shredding Bin Service Sizing

Salt River Project (SRP) has been working towards its intensive sustainability goals by repurposing all paper waste through a third party vendor that securely shreds all paper and then recycles it. Rather than placing paper into traditional recycling bins, all paper is placed into secure shredding bins whose fullness is then visually categorized into 25%…

Making Portable and Less Expensive LED Based Spectrometer for Monitoring the Quality of Fruits and Water Content

The fruit and vegetable sector plays a significant role in farm income enhancement, and sustainable agriculture globally. Unfortunately, this sector usually goes through post-harvest losses. Visual inspection of the fruits and vegetables using the human eyes has been the usual method of inspection of fruitful on a commercial scale. However, this method for fruit quality…

Target Detection Using Algorithmic Matter

Synth cells are micro-scale robots with limited computation power and memory, but can work together to perform complex tasks. It has been shown that synth cells can converge to a specific target in a cyclic system, by testing different policies and communicating with each other. This work will show how this model resembles that of…

Vector Tiles in Geospatial Mapping

The research question is “How can vector tiles and maps be used in DataSys lab’s creation, the GeoSpark software, to provide the most user-friendly interface possible?” In order to determine its compatibility to be used with the constantly changing world of vector maps, tests of run time and interface efficiency trials are to be done…

Utilizing PVAD Algorithm for Detecting Network Anomalies

Detecting network anomalies is a critical part of maintaining security and reliability within computer networks. The goal of this experiment is to investigate the multivariate data characteristics of normal, anomalous, and malicious network behaviors. By converting numerical data to categorical data, the ability to recognize attacks and generate associations becomes more efficient. By using the…

Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Model in Response to Applied Electrical Stimulation

This research is investigating the effect of applied electric potential on synaptic plasticity in neural networks. Applied current can activate neurons in a manner that can induce activity-dependent plasticity, i.e. changes in the neural circuit based on activity patterns. The researcher has identified synaptic parameters of a mathematical model that are likely to be affected…

Using Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels to Increase Cortical Plasticity Following TBI

Advances in stem cell technology have shown promise for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested the effects of injecting neural stem cells embedded in a hyaluronic acid hydrogel on motor recovery in rats with TBI. Forty rats were assigned to one of four conditions. TBI+HA/Stem cells, TBI+HA, TBI or Control. All animals then received…

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Composites

Composites are used in a wide variety of applications, from cars to spacecraft, from jets to missiles. It is necessary to understand the strength and durability of such materials to determine their usefulness, cost-effectiveness, and how long they can withstand varying conditions and stresses. The goal of this project is to conduct stress-strain analyses on…

Investigation of the Practicality of Evaporation Prevention for the Central Arizona Project

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a 336-mile system that moves water from the Colorado River near Lake Havasu, AZ to the south of Tucson, AZ. Over 80% of Arizona’s population depends on water delivered by the CAP. The total water loss due to evaporation and seepage sums up to about 24.4 trillion gallons each…

Three-dimensionally (3D) Printed Bio-inspired Hydrophobic Surfaces for Improving Spray Cooling Technique

This study investigates a 3D printing process for bio-inspired structures and their application in spray cooling. This research used a micrometer-scale, digital light processing 3D printing technique to fabricate arrays of microstructures inspired by the morphology of lotus leaf, taro leaf, shark skin, and rib pattern. The manufacturability tests for the microstructures were performed to…

3D printed Oscillating Flow Mixers to Enhance Heat Transfer in Liquid Cooling Channels

Heat transfer enhancement technique is an area of considerable interest, contributing to advances in heat exchangers and thermodynamic systems. This research investigates advanced passive vortex generators, i.e., oscillating flow mixers, that can actively mix internal flows, improve convective heat transfer, demonstrates 3-dimensional (3D) printing of a millimeter-scale channel heat sink integrated with flow mixers that…

Optimizing and Scaling an Automated Sampling System to Improve Quantification of CO2 Utilization in Cultures of Engineered Cyanobacteria

Measuring changes in concentration within a dynamic system can be accomplished with a simple Arduino powered system. Currently, the system is utilized in cyanobacteria CO2 fixation experiments, where the fixation rates of multiple cultures can be measured simultaneously. The system employs solenoids in parallel and can be applied for n number of outlet streams, all connected…

Input-elicitation Methods for Crowdsourced Human Computation

“Collecting human data from crowdsourcing is problematic due to cognitive biases, varying worker expertise, and varying levels of subjective scales. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of input-elicitation systems for a crowdsourced top-k computation task. We develop and run a crowdsourced experiment in Amazon MTurk that prompts users to rank the number of dots…

Surface Roughness in Metal Additive Manufacturing: Towards Accurate Measurement of Relevant Metrics

The goal of this research is to determine which surface roughness metrics are the most important for predicting fatigue in Metal Additive Manufacturing (3D printing). A Keyence Optical Scanning Microscope was used to measure surface roughness metrics. The researcher studied literature to improve his understanding of the metrics and their relevance to fatigue. In addition,…

Complementary Wireless Vision Test Bed

The next generation of high frequency 5G wireless communications will allow high data rate communication. However, operating at these frequencies poses challenges such as (i) the sensitivity to blockages which motivates establishing Line-of-Sight(LOS) connection and (ii) the high beam training overhead resulting from deploying large antenna arrays. To combat these challenges, we propose to leverage…

Engineering, Border Walls and Wildlife

The purpose of this study is to research and assess engineering considerations of the impact of border barriers on wildlife. This study focuses on if or how engineers and their firms make those considerations, such as through design modifications. Barriers can obstruct or impede wildlife movements, which may influence resource acquisition, as well as impact…

The Future of Non-lethal Solutions

The union of weapons research and development and engineering is one as old as the role of the engineer itself. As many engineering career paths converge with national and domestic security applications, it is important that engineers consider the role of non-lethal solutions to meet these challenges. In this research, existing and emerging non-lethal solutions…

Development of A Polymer Composite With Conductive Abilities For Sensor Application

This research project investigates the effect of the ratio of conductive nanofiller to elastomer in a conductive polymer matrix. This research uses a polymer composite made with carbon nanotubes and Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Conductivity tests are performed on different samples to determine the electrical conductivity. Tensile test of the samples is carried out to establish mechanical…

Robot Artist

The research question states how we can extract data on an artist’s artwork – mark-making methodology, in order to recreate the original art using a robot. The researcher studied digital mark-making tools used by artists to obtain the required data. He also studied how robots are controlled – their dynamics and software. He concluded that…

The Filtration Properties of Electrospun MOF Fibers

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the efficacy of electrospun metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for use in charged dye filtration in aqueous solutions. HKUST-1 and ZIF-8 will both be electrospun with the polymer matrimid. A layer of these composite fibers will be used for filtration. Fluorescence spectroscopy will be used to observe less…

Active Self-Boring Robots that Enable Next Generation Dynamic Underground Wireless Sensing Networks

Self-boring robots address sustainability goals by decreasing environmental impact, improving subterranean mobility, and enabling dynamic underground wireless sensing networks. Extensive literature reviews have been done exploring helical screw conveyors as a method of burrowing. Optimal helical parameters for pitch and radius have been calculated to improve performance of screw motion. A reference robot has been…

Raman Spectrometry Conclusions as an Example of Intuitive Software

There is a lack of accessibility in Raman spectrometry (used to detect the presence of compounds in provided samples). It was determined that by creating a software which aided in reducing human error, along with development of a smaller scale hardware, this accessibility issue could be remedied. In this work the researcher developed an algorithm…

Develop Polymer Composite from Silica Aerogel for Heat Insulation

Many homes use heaters and air conditioners depending on the time of the year therefore there is a need for some insulation to maintain the temperature within the homes. The objective of this research was to develop a polymer composite from silica aerogel to be used as heat insulators. The goal was to investigate the…

Biochar’s Ability to Remove Escherichia Coli

The research question addressed was how effective biochar is as a soil amendment for the removal of Escherichia Coli (E. coli). Biochar is created through pyrolysis – heating biomass in the absence of oxygen to create a porous medium. The research question was answered through a series of soil column experiments, in which E. coli…

Propulsion Data Acquisition

The research team’s interest in this project is prompted by the lack of knowledge on electric aircraft performance. Research is conducted via the development of instruments onboard a miniature electric aircraft platform. Instruments equipped measure thrust, angle of attack, orientation, altitude, airspeed, battery current/voltage, motor RPM/torque, and internal temperature. The functional suite of sensors onboard…

Cross Contamination Prevention on Mars Rovers

Mars rovers have been launched to perform experiments on Mar which are focused on preventing contaminants from interfering with the study of the planet. This research will be specifically looking at the sampling process to create a system for the rover to sample at different locations while preventing contaminants from the different locations and from…

Analysis of PMMA Plastic Zone Size

In this project, the size of the plastic zone in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was measured as it changes with respect to temperature.  A windowed fixture was developed to hold heating elements near the sample during tensile testing on a precracked fracture specimen.  The size of the plastic zone was measured by digital image correlation as…

Tuning the Hydrophilicity and Porosity of Electrospun Membranes for Pretreatment in Water Filtration

The reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment process is a well-researched technology among the pressure driven processes to produce potable water. RO membranes are susceptible to fouling and scaling. This work explores electrospinning, a cost-effective and scalable technique, to blend two polymers into a nonwoven membrane comprised of fibers ~100 nm – 100 µm in diameter….

Silicon Netting for Surgical Organ Isolation

Laparotomies surgeries are performed to explore and examine a patient’s abdominal cavity to diagnosis any issues or complications a patient may present with. An issue with laparotomy surgeries is maintaining accurate visibility in the abdominal cavity. Along with the current abdominal retractors, lap pads are often crudely used as a cushioning and isolation device. The…

Through-Thickness Interphase Characterization of PMC

Mechanical properties of a polymer matrix composite (PMC) are driven by the local interphase properties. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), using the technique of Peak Force Quantitative Mechanical Nanomechanical Mapping (PF QNM), was utilized to analyze Young’s modulus, adhesion, and topography at different depths of a PMC at the nanoscale. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis testing was completed…

Learning Unknown Physics Behind Cellular Dynamics Using Time-Variant Neural Network

The objective of the research is to develop a modified Hamiltonian ordinary differential equation neural network (MHODE) that models the dynamics of a multi body system with non-conservative energy. This model will be validated through the comparison of the total energy profile over time between the learned physics and the ground truth. The proposed machine…

Investigation of Novel Composite Reinforced with Mechanophore-Enhanced Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Mechanophores, described as molecules that emit visible change when induced to force, have been proposed as a potential solution for damage precursor detection in fiber-reinforced polymers. Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes were grafted with cinnamoyl mechanophore and embedded into carbon fiber reinforced polymer. The objective was to synthesize an alternative method of grafting that would increase the…

Quantifying Students’ Understanding of the Engineering Design Process

The engineering design process (EDP) is one of the most important concepts that students learn and practice applying in their first year engineering courses. The goal of this research is to develop a method for measuring the understanding of the EDP as demonstrated through concept maps created by students. In order to achieve this, the…

Is Artificial Intelligence a Burden in a Changing Environment

Although there have been many recent advancements in artificial intelligence (A.I.) learning, the capacity to make assumptions is necessary to reduce the time, data, and error it takes in order to approach human learning. An environment that changes enough so small patterns must be predicted to optimally learn is required to promote assumptive behavior. Building…

Improving Data Rate for 5G Systems using USRP Kits

In this research project, machine learning is utilized for channel estimation. Channel gains can be manually estimated, but the downside of manually calculating estimating the channels is that it is highly time-consuming. Therefore, in this project, machine learning algorithms are brought into play to reduce estimation time. The algorithms used throughout the project were designed…

MedTech Surgical Device Innovation for Trapped Lung

Trapped lung is a condition in which the lung cannot expand fully due to a fibrous “peel” that restricts expansion. There are no surgical devices designed specifically for fibrous tissue removal or decortication. This lack of standardization for decortication procedures increases the likelihood of complications and variation from surgeon to surgeon. The team developed a…

Analysis of Fracture Speed Under Changing Temperatures

Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a brittle material at room temperature, but experiences property changes when under temperature and tensile load. The research team utilized this change in mechanical property for analysis and drew conclusions on various elements of the polymer. The PMMA plates were coated with aluminum to allow electric current to be displaced on…

Silver Analysis on Stainless Steel 316 used for water systems in spacecrafts

Stainless Steel 316 and its reaction with Ag ions were investigated because of the use it has in potable water systems on spacecrafts. The objective of this study is to stop the depletion of Ag by precoating the SS316 coupons with Ag, AgNPs, and sulfidized silver. The coupons were exposed to AgF at 400 ppb…

Creating a Multi-Modal Near Infrared Photoacoustic Fluorescence Microscopy System for In Vivo Imaging

Current optical imaging techniques have a limited penetration depth based on the high attenuation of visible light in biological tissue. Fluorescent and photoacoustic microscopy are methods currently used to explore in vivo tissue samples. However beneficial, these current techniques still lack penetration depth past 2 mm. By utilizing both fluorescence and photoacoustics, and by incorporating…

Researching UV Treated Plastics Used as an Additive in Cement to Mitigate Plastic Waste and Improve Mechanical Performance

Steel reinforced concrete is used in a large portion of the world’s construction designs; however, the production of​ cement, a primary concretes ingredient, contributes significant carbon emissions to the environment. If the mechanical properties of concrete structures could be improved using less cement while mitigating plastic waste, it could prove to be economically viable in…

Design and Characterization of Variable Stiffness Soft Actuators for Lateral Ankle Support

This research explores the design of a soft robotic ankle-foot orthosis (SR-AFO) exosuit designed to support the ankle in the inversion and eversion directions without restricting motion in the dorsiflexion and plantar-flexion directions. The focus is to optimize the design of an inflatable fabric-based actuator with imbedded rigid pieces. A universal testing machine (UTM) was…

Is the Demand for Tesla Worth It? Investigating the Life Cycle Assessment and Long-Term Effects of Upstream Emissions from Battery Electric Vehicles

Tesla’s CEO claims that their solar fueled fleet of battery electric vehicles (BEV) will guide the company to ‘carbon neutrality’. This research aims to determine whether Tesla is producing BEVs with more sustainable life cycles than internal combustion engine (ICE) and hybrid (HE) vehicles. A life cycle assessment (LCA) corresponding to the stages of Tesla’s supply…

Gait Sensing using Fabric based Soft Inflatable Actuators and Force Haptic Feedback

The physical therapists commonly make use of their visual prowess to ensure that the patients adapt correct walking patterns by observing for postural abnormalities and cuing when necessary. For better rehabilitation and reducing the workload on physical therapists, gait sensing and haptic feedback integrated into the shoe insole can be a viable option. This work…

Fracture Propagation in Glassy Polymers Due to Temperature Differentials

The objective of this project is to determine how fracture behavior in glassy materials changes when there is a temperature gradient across the width of a crack front. Initially, dynamical mechanical testing was conducted to find the glass transition temperature of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) samples. Next, a temperature fixture was created to enclose fracture specimens…

Facilitated Transport of Contaminants by Microplastics in Soil Media

Microplastics (MPs) have become emerging pollutants on agricultural land, where they occur in soils due to the degradation of plastic mulches. The ability of MPs to adsorb organic and heavy metal pollutants may facilitate the transport of these co-existing contaminants. This study investigates the effects of MPs in lead and atrazine mobilization in packed columns…

A Probabilistic and Confidence-Driven Approach to Theory of Mind Models in Autonomous Agents

By nature, humans can be very unpredictable with their actions, which makes it difficult to create a perfect Theory of Mind (ToM) model to attempt to predict those actions. Having such a model is extremely important to an autonomous car’s motion planning for safe and efficient interaction with other vehicles. The researcher’s work addresses this…

Investigating Factors to Provide Sustained Release of Ketorolac in Temperature-Responsive Hydrogels

Local delivery of anesthetics are a safer alternative to postoperative pain management than opioids, which can have addictive and dangerous side-effects. This research aimed to address postoperative pain via sustained, localized release of the ketorolac using temperature-responsive gel formulations. Hydrogels containing ketorolac were administered in five release studies at body temperature (37°C). In addition, cloudpoint…

Bicycle Rider Pose Estimation from Physical Human-Robot Interaction Forces

Riding a bicycle requires simultaneous balance and navigation, which may be difficult or even impossible for persons with disabilities. This may be partly alleviated by providing active balance and steering assistance to the rider. To achieve this assistance while still providing free maneuverability, it is necessary to know the position and intent of the rider…

Effect of Growth-Feedback on Adaptive Synthetic Gene Circuits

Synthetic gene circuits are designed with different network topologies to give cells specific functions. These functions are affected by circuit-host interactions such as resource competition, cell growth-mediated feedback, and metabolic burden, possibly giving the circuit new properties. Using computational modeling and experimental verification, 3-node network topologies capable of adaptation were analyzed to observe the effects…

Combined Interfacial and Solvothermal Synthesis to Study the MOF Growth Process

Solvothermal synthesis is a method of producing chemical compounds and is commonly applied to synthesize metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). MOFs are a class of crystalline porous materials with the traits of gas storage, separation and catalysis. Research on these crystal structures require a lot of trial-and-error, however; there are over 60,000 MOF structures discovered and many…

Magnetic Needle Steering for Minimally Invasive Surgery

This research aims to provide surgeons with a way to conduct more complex surgeries with increased precision and control in a minimally invasive manner. By utilizing a robotic arm to control a permanent magnet setup, the corresponding magnetic field direction and magnitude can be precisely controlled. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate…

Machine Learning and Dimensionality Reduction to Accelerate DFT Simulations of Material Properties and Enable Computational Material Design

This research is focused on applying machine learning to create an alternative to computationally expensive DFT and MD simulations of material properties. We specifically investigate the utility of graph neural network in learning Koopman operators for converting nonlinear (atomic) dynamical models into (approximately) linear ones. For n-body dynamics (MD and DFT), we hypothesize that GNNs…

Analyzing the Effect of Contact Resistance on the Temperature Field Evolution During Resistance Spot Welding

Resistance spot welding is used to join metal sheets together by sandwiching workpieces between two electrodes passing a high current through the assembly which generates resistive heating that melts the workpieces together. The primary research question answered is how the contact resistance influences the temperature field evolution of